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Transcript of Research Methodology
Types of Research
Research in which a social phenomena are defined and described
Seeks to find out how people get along in the setting under question, what meanings they give to their actions, and what issues concern them
Identify causes and effects of social phenomena and predict how one phenomenon will change to variation in another phenomenon
Impact of some social program
Concepts in Research
IV and DV
Conceptualization and Operationalization
Literature Review and Hypothesis
Hand, C. "A Survey of 3D Interaction Techniques". Computer Graphics Forum, 16(5): 269-281. (Dec 1997)
Recent gains in the performance of 3D graphics hardware and rendering systems have not been matched by a corresponding improvement in our knowledge of how to interact with the virtual environments we create; therefore there is a need to examine these further if we are to improve the overall quality of our interactive 3D systems.
This paper examines some of the interaction techniques which have been developed for object manipulation, navigation and application control in 3D virtual environments. The use of both mouse-based techniques and 3D input devices is considered, along with the role of feedback and some aspects of tools and widgets.
What is research?
into and study of materials, sources, etc., in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions and an endeavor to discover new or collate old facts etc. by the scientific study of a subject or by a course of critical investigation.
Eventually leads to generalization and verification
a set of inter-related constructs and propositions that specify relations among variables to explain and predict phenomena
should be simple, consistent with observed relationships, tentative and verifiable
Ex: The purpose of the study was to examine the link between
age and physical fitness levels in terms of muscular strength and endurance.
It was hypothesized that older and younger adults would demonstrate significantly different fitness levels.
Ex: What is the impact of military spending on economic growth?
Ex: This research is to examine how the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme impacts conflicts
Ex. Tax treaty with US and Japan
Signing of treaty, media, meetings etc.
Correlation vs. causal mechanisms
Numerical, measurable data
Traditional or positivist approach
Clearly stated questions
Developed research procedures
Extraneous variable controls
Traditional, statistical analyses
Generally non-numerical data
Typically anthropological and sociological research methods
Observations of a “natural” setting
In-depth descriptions of situations
Interpretive and descriptive
cross-sectional vs. longitudinal
Conservatism with age
Correlation vs. causal mechanisms
Last Ex: The purpose of the study was to determine whether track athletes trained to use
mental imagery performed superior to athletes who did not receive the mental imagery training.
We expected those athletes receiving the training would perform significantly better than the untrained athletes.
types of data
Chapter 1: Science, Society and Social Research
Selective or inaccurate observation
Resistance to change
Chapter 2: The Process and Problems of Social Research
Chapter 4: Conceptualization and Measurement
Chapter 6: Causation and experimental design
Social research question
Direction of association
Closed-ended (fixed-choice) question
Random assignment (randomization)
Cross-population generalizability (external validity)
Causal validity (internal validity)
Cross-sectional research design
Longitudinal research design
Individual unit of analysis
Group unit of analysis
Trend (repeated cross-sectional design)
Units of analysis
Reductionist fallacy (reductionism)
Institutional review board (IRB)
Level of measurement
Nominal level of measurement
Ordinal level of measurement
Interval level of measurement
Ratio level of measurement
Nonequivalent control group design
Ex post facto control group design
Multiple group before-and-after design
Repeated measures panel design
Time series design
Different attrition (mortality)
History effect (effect of external events)
Compensatory rivalry (John Henry effect)
Expectancies of experiment staff (self-fulfilling prophecy)
Distribution of benefits