Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Research Methodology

No description
by

Andrew Lim

on 5 November 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Research Methodology

Research Methodology Basics for Statistics and Data Analysis
Types of Research
Descriptive:
Research in which a social phenomena are defined and described
Exploratory:
Seeks to find out how people get along in the setting under question, what meanings they give to their actions, and what issues concern them
Explanatory:
Identify causes and effects of social phenomena and predict how one phenomenon will change to variation in another phenomenon
Evaluation:
Impact of some social program
Concepts in Research
IV and DV
Conceptualization and Operationalization
ex. Love
Literature Review and Hypothesis
Hand, C. "A Survey of 3D Interaction Techniques". Computer Graphics Forum, 16(5): 269-281. (Dec 1997)
(Abstract)
Recent gains in the performance of 3D graphics hardware and rendering systems have not been matched by a corresponding improvement in our knowledge of how to interact with the virtual environments we create; therefore there is a need to examine these further if we are to improve the overall quality of our interactive 3D systems.

This paper examines some of the interaction techniques which have been developed for object manipulation, navigation and application control in 3D virtual environments. The use of both mouse-based techniques and 3D input devices is considered, along with the role of feedback and some aspects of tools and widgets.

What is research?
The
systematic investigation
into and study of materials, sources, etc., in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions and an endeavor to discover new or collate old facts etc. by the scientific study of a subject or by a course of critical investigation.
Eventually leads to generalization and verification
Theory:
a set of inter-related constructs and propositions that specify relations among variables to explain and predict phenomena
should be simple, consistent with observed relationships, tentative and verifiable
objective
precise
verifiable
parsimonious
empirical
logical
probabilistic

Ex: The purpose of the study was to examine the link between
age and physical fitness levels in terms of muscular strength and endurance.
It was hypothesized that older and younger adults would demonstrate significantly different fitness levels.

Ex: What is the impact of military spending on economic growth?

Ex: This research is to examine how the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme impacts conflicts

Definitions
Spuriousness
Intervening variable
Causation/Causal Mechanism
Ex. Tax treaty with US and Japan
Signing of treaty, media, meetings etc.
Correlation vs. causal mechanisms
no relationship
positive relationship
negative relationship
curvilinear relationship
Quantitative
Numerical, measurable data
Traditional or positivist approach
Clearly stated questions
Rational hypotheses
Developed research procedures
Extraneous variable controls
Large samples
Traditional, statistical analyses

Qualitative
Generally non-numerical data
Typically anthropological and sociological research methods
Observations of a “natural” setting
In-depth descriptions of situations
Interpretive and descriptive
cross-sectional vs. longitudinal
Conservatism with age
Correlation vs. causal mechanisms
no relationship
positive relationship
negative relationship
curvilinear relationship
Last Ex: The purpose of the study was to determine whether track athletes trained to use
mental imagery performed superior to athletes who did not receive the mental imagery training.
We expected those athletes receiving the training would perform significantly better than the untrained athletes.

Conclusion
types of data
fallacies
ethics
validity

Chapter 1: Science, Society and Social Research
Overgeneralization
Selective or inaccurate observation
Illogical reasoning
Resistance to change
Science
Social science
Descriptive research
Exploratory research
Explanatory research
Evaluation research
Chapter 2: The Process and Problems of Social Research
Chapter 4: Conceptualization and Measurement
Chapter 6: Causation and experimental design
Social research question
Theory
Deductive research
Inductive research
Research circle
Hypothesis
Variable
Dependent variable
Independent variable
Direction of association
Inductive reasoning
Anomalous
Serendipitous

Concept
Conceptualization
Constant
Operation
Operationalization
Content analysis
Closed-ended (fixed-choice) question
Mutually exclusive
Exhaustive
Open-ended question
Index
Scale
Unobtrusive measure
Triangulation
Causal effect
Ceteris paribus
Association
Time order
Nonspuriousness
Spurious
Mechanism
Context
True experiment
Comparison groups
Experimental group
Control group
Posttest
Pretest
Random assignment (randomization)
Matching
Quasi-experimental design

Validity
Measurement validity
Generalizability

Sample generalizability
Cross-population generalizability (external validity)
Causal validity (internal validity)

Cross-sectional research design
Longitudinal research design
Individual unit of analysis
Group unit of analysis
Trend (repeated cross-sectional design)
Panel design
Cohort
Cohort design
Units of analysis
Ecological fallacy
Reductionist fallacy (reductionism)
Confidentiality
Institutional review board (IRB)
Level of measurement
Nominal level of measurement
Ordinal level of measurement
Interval level of measurement
Ratio level of measurement
Face validity
Content validity
Criterion validity
Concurrent validity
Predictive validity
Construct validity
Reliability
Test-retest reliability
Interitem reliability
Alternate-forms reliability
Interobserver reliability
Split-halves reliability

Nonequivalent control group design
Before-and-after design
Ex post facto control group design
Multiple group before-and-after design
Repeated measures panel design
Time series design
Selection bias
Different attrition (mortality)
Endogenous change
Regression effect
History effect (effect of external events)
Contamination
Compensatory rivalry (John Henry effect)
Demoralization
Treatment misidentification
Expectancies of experiment staff (self-fulfilling prophecy)
Double-blind procedure
Placebo effect
Hawthorne effect
Process analysis
Field experiment
Distribution of benefits
Full transcript