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Canada in the 1920's/30's
Transcript of Canada in the 1920's/30's
Canada in the 1920's-30's Nellie McClung was born on October 20, 1873 in Chatsworth, Ontario and died on September 1, 1951 in Victoria, British Columbia. As a famous feminist, she initiated the first Persons Case to have women recognized as people under the BNA Act. Among other causes, she promoted the vote for women, temperance, women’s property rights and the Dower Act, Factory safety legislation, old age pensions, and public health nursing services. She was active in the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union throughout her entire feminist career. As well as am accomplished activist for women, she was a published author who wrote at total of 16 books within her life time. Her first book being "Sowing Seeds in Danny" in 1908. During her political career, she supported the Liberal Political Party. Nellie McClung also helped organize the Winnipeg Political League which was a group designed to help working women. She often lectured about temperance and women’s suffrage. She was the first woman member of the CBC Board of Governors in 1936. She was also the only woman member of the Canadian delegation to the League of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland. Nellie McClung Henry Ford The Group of Seven Dione Quintuplets In 1891, Ford became an engineer with the Edison Illuminating Company in Detroit. This event signified a conscious decision on Ford's part to dedicate his life to industrial pursuits. His promotion to Chief Engineer in 1893 gave him enough time and money to devote attention to his personal experiments on internal combustion engines. 1913. The original members consisted of Franklin Carmichael, Lawren Harris, A.Y Jackson, Franz Johnston, Arthur Lismer, J.E.H Macdonald and F.H. Varley. During the 1920’s the group’s popularity spread because of self-promotion, friends at the Letters Club, the Canadian Forum, and the support of the National Gallery. After Franz Johnston retired from the group in 1926 A.J. Casson was appointed and recognized as a new member of The Group of Seven. Later on in 1930’s two more new members were admitted into the group. Edwin Holgate, who was from Montreal and L.L. Fitzgerald from Winnipeg were added to introduce a wider geographic base. The next generation of Canadian artists were heavily influenced by Harris and Jackson. Lismer, Macdonald, and Varley each became noted and influential teachers. By 1933, the infamous Group of Seven dismembered and went their separate ways. These experiments culminated in 1896 with the completion of his own self-propelled vehicle-the Quadricycle. The Quadricycle had four wire wheels that looked like heavy bicycle wheels, was steered with a tiller like a boat, and had only two forward speeds with no reverse. The Worlds First Known Surviving Quintuplets
5 Identical girls Annette, Cecile, Yvonne, Marie and Émilie were born on May 28, 1934 ( Depression Time). In order to protect the quintuplets from exploitation the Ontario government took the girls away from their parents, Elzire and Oliva Dionne.
The Ministry of Public Welfare sets up a trust fund in their behalf with assurances that the financial well-being of the entire Dionne family would be taken care of "for all their normal needs for the rest of their lives."
The first nine years of their lives, they live at a hospital, which was exclusively built for their use and it was intended to protect their privacy but it quickly became a tourist destination called "Quintland."
Between 1934 and 1943, about 3 million people visit Quintland. The government and nearby businesses make an estimated half-billion $ off the tourists, much of which the Dionne family never sees.
After nine years at Quintland, Elzire and Olivia Dionne won a bitter custody battle with the Ontario government and the girls were returned to their parents. This put the girls in the uncomfortable position of returning to a home and a family, which were alien to them. The reunion was short lived.
At 18 the quintuplets left home and cut off almost all contact with their family. The Famous Five
The Famous Five or The Valiant Five were five Canadian women who in 1927 asked the Supreme Court of Canada to answer the question, "Does the word 'Persons' in Section 24 of the British North America Act, 1867, include female persons?" in the case Edwards v. Canada (Attorney General). On April 24, 1928, Canada's Supreme Court summarized its unanimous decision that women are not persons. The last line of the judgment reads as follows: "Understood to mean 'Are women eligible for appointment to the Senate of Canada,' the question is answered in the negative." This judgment was overturned by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. This case, which came to be known as the Persons Case, had important ramifications not just for women's rights but also because in overturning the case, the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council engendered a radical change in the Canadian judicial approach to the Canadian constitution, an approach that has come to be known as the "living tree doctrine". Although Ford was not the first to build a self-propelled vehicle with a gasoline engine, he was, however, one of several automotive pioneers who helped this country become a nation of motorists Emily Murphy (Emily Gowan Ferguson)
Born: March 14, 1868
Died: October 17, 1933
Was a Canadian women's rights activist, jurist, and author.
Became the first woman magistrate in Canada, and in the British Empire.
Best known for her contributions to Canadian feminism, specifically to the question of whether women were "persons" under Canadian law.
In 1927, Murphy and four other women launched the "Persons Case," contending that women could be "qualified persons" eligible to sit in the Senate.
The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that they were not. However, upon appeal to the Judicial Committee of the British Privy Council, the court of last resort for Canada at that time, the women won their case. Trends of the
1920's-30's Fredrick Banting The 1920s is the decade in which fashion entered the modern era. It was the decade in which women first freed themselves from constricting fashions and began to wear more comfortable clothes (such as short skirts or trousers). Men abandoned overly formal clothes and began to wear sport clothes for the first time. The suits men wear today are still based, for the most part, on those men wore in the late 1920s. Their hats were somewhat rounded as well. A Canadian scientist and a co-discover of insulin, was born on November 14, 1891 in Ontario, Canada. Banting initially attended the University of Toronto for Divinity but quickly changed to Medicine. He was noted all through his life, though particularly while he was young, to be a great lover of dogs. This keen observation of these animals would serve him well later in life. After graduating from U of T in 1916 Banting joined the Canadian Army, specifically the medical corps, and served in France during the First World War. He remained there for the duration of the war and was awarded the Military Cross in 1919 for practicing his art under enemy fire.
By now Banting had become interested in patients with diabetes. It had recently been discovered that diabetes was primarily caused by a lack of a specific protein in the body. Dubbed insulin, this hormone presented a problem: how could one extract it from the pancreas for use in diabetes patients? Banting had an idea how to do so. But to test it he needed facilities, funding and help. He received all three by speaking to J.J.R. Macleod, a Professor of Physiology at U of T. Macleod supplied an assistant in the form of Charles Best, still a medical student at the time, and facilities at the university. Banting and Best went to work and, with assistance from Macleod, eventually discovered insulin.
How? Part of their research involved the use of dogs. They would artificially induce diabetic tendencies in these dogs and then test experimental extracts of insulin on the dogs. Several dogs died as Banting and Best worked out their surgical procedures, and initial tests were not favorable. But by the end of the summer of 1922 the project was showing great promise as blood sugar levels in these dogs dropped off. Testing on humans yielded similar results, and within months insulin was being mass-produced for diabetes sufferers everywhere Mary Pickford Liberty Bonds: A Liberty Bond was a war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I. Subscribing to the bonds became a sign of patriotic duty in the United States and introduced the idea of financial safeties to many citizens.
Mary Pickford was born on April 8th 1892 in Toronto, Ontario. She was known as “America’s Sweetheart”, “Little Mary” and “the Girl with Curls” and became a significant figure in the progress of film acting. She was one of the original founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, and was the co-founder of the film studio United Artists. Pickford was picked 24th of the greatest females stars of all time by the American Film Institute, and helped shape the Hollywood institute. During her lifetime, she used her importance in the movie industry to promote a variety of causes. During World War I, she promoted the sale of Liberty Bonds through many fund-raising speeches that started off in Washington, D.C. She then spoke on Wall Street 5 days later to an estimated 50,000 people. Though she was born in Canada, she had a very large impact on the Americans. She kissed the flag of America for the cameras, auctioned one of her world famous curls for $15,000 and she sold an estimated 5 million dollars worth of bonds. The U.S. Navy christened her as the official "Little Sister", and the army named two cannons after her, and made her an honorary colonel. On May 29, 1979 she died of a cerebral hemorrhage and was buried in the Garden of Memory in Glendale, California beside her mother and her siblings. Mary recieved an Oscar as best actress for Coquette in1929 and she also received an Academy Honorary Award for a lifetime of achievements in 1976. Lionel Conacher Lionel conacher was born on May 24th, 1900 in Ottawa, Ontario and was both a Canadian Athlete and a Politician. In the first half of the 20th Century, he was voted the country’s top athlete and won many championships in numerous sports. His first passion was football and he was a member of the 1921 Grey Cup Champion playing for the Toronto Argonauts. He was part of the Toronto Maple Leafs baseball team that won the International League Championships in 1926. He also played hockey, and won a Memorial Cup in 1920 and the Stanley Cup twice with the Chicago Black hawks in 1934 and the Montreal Maroons in 1935. He retired as an athlete in 1937, and became a politician. During that year, he won the election of Legislative Assembly of Ontario and in 1949 won a seat in the House of Commons. His political positions were mainly revolved around sports. He worked to remove corruption in boxing and served as an MPP in Ontario. He also served as the chairman of the Ontario Athletic Commission and as a director of recreation and entertainment for the Royal Canadian Air Force. MPP stands for the Member of the Provincial Parliment the people called Lionel the "Big Train" Henrietta Muir Edwards
Born: December 18, 1849
Died: November 10, 1931
Was a Canadian women’s rights activist and reformer.
As a young woman, she espoused various feminist causes, forming the Working Girls' Association in 1875 to provide vocational training for women and editing the journal, Women's Work in Canada.
In 1893, with Lady Aberdeen, she founded the National Council of Women and the Victorian Order of Nurses.
Among other honors, in October 2009, the Senate voted to name Edwards and the rest of the Five Canada's first "honorary senators.” Prior to the 1920's smoking was considered a nasty habit by the public. Women smoking in public was precieved as especially disturbing. However, as the century progressed, women strived for equality and thus began the movement of females smoking tobacco products. Lionel was named the country's top football player and he was inducted into Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 1955. He was also part of the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in 1964, the Canadian Lacrosse Hall of Fame in 1965 and the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1994.
The 1920s are characterized by two distinct periods of fashion. In the early 1920s change progressed slowly, as many were reluctant to adopt new styles. From 1925, the public passionately embraced the styles associated with the Roaring Twenties. These styles continue to characterize fashion until early in 1932. The Dionne Quintuplets in 1944 The Dionne Quintuplets before the Ontario government took them away from their parents. Irene Parlby, (born Irene Marryat)
Born: January 9, 1868
Died: July 12 1965
Was a Canadians women’s farm leader, activist and politician.
Born in London, England, Parlby came to Canada in 1896.
In 1913, Parlby helped to found the first women's local of the United Farmers of Alberta.
Was elected in 1921 to the Alberta Legislature for the riding of Lacombe, holding the riding for 14 years.
Appointed as minister without portfolio, she was the first woman Cabinet minister in Alberta.
Parlby was president of the United Farm Women of Alberta from 1916 to 1919.
On behalf of the UFWA, she pushed to improve public health care services and establish municipal hospitals as well as mobile medical and dental clinics.
In 1921, Parlby was elected to the provincial legislature and made a cabinet minister (the second woman in Canada to hold a provincial cabinet post).
She was once quoted saying: "...and what when we die? Should women go back to the state they once belonged to? No, they should rather take arms against it, and fight for acknowledgment, not uniformity." Here she fought for acceptance rather that equality to the male race.
Among other honors, in October 2009, the Senate voted to name Parlby and the rest of the Five Canada's first "honorary senators." Smoking Emily died at 20 in 1954 of an epileptic seizure.
In 1965 a book called "We Were Five", and co-authored by Marie, Yvonne, Annette and Cecile was published. The book described the Dionne's childhood from their perspective, which understandably turned out to be a somewhat dismal view.
In 1970 Marie died of a heart attack.
The three remaining sisters finally received compensation in 1998 when they were awarded 4 million dollars by the Ontario government.
Three years later Yvonne died in Montreal. Fashion Items
in High Demand Kitten Heels Fur short, slender heel, usually from 1.5 inches to 2 inches high
Agnes Macphail was born March 24, 1890 Ontario, Canada and died Feb. 13, 1954, Toronto. She was known as a Canadian politician - although she started as a schoolteacher.
The reason why she entered politics was to represent the farmers in her region.
1921 was the first year women could vote in national elections in Canada, that is when she was elected to the Canadian House of Commons as its first female member;
It was phenomenal that Macphail won the election since it was the time when women were basically expected to stay home. Macphail, however, believed women were equal to men and spent her lifetime trying to prove it and served until 1940. In that period of time she advocated “politics of equality" for all people, regardless of their gender or social-economic status. Macphail's main legislative interests included farm issues, women's equality, prison reform, and peace activism.
She was the first female Canadian delegate to the League of Nations. Elected to the Ontario legislature (1943 – 45, 1948–51)
she sponsored the province's first equal-pay legislation. Agnes Campbell Macphail The Bob Hair Cut Most men hated the new bobbed hairstyle, but women loved it. By the late 1920s, it was difficult to find a woman under 50 who didn't have bobbed hair. Popular pelts included bear, goat, wolf and raccoon. Louise McKinney
Born: September 22, 1868
Died: July 10, 1931
Was a provincial politician and woman's rights activist from Alberta, Canada.
She was the first woman sworn in to the Legislative Assembly of Alberta and the first woman elected to a legislature in Canada and in the British Empire.
She served that position from 1917 to 1921 sitting with the Non-partisan league caucus in opposition. References: Nellie McClung (Nellie Letitia Mooney)
Born: October 20, 1873 –
Died: September 1, 1951
Was a Canadian feminist, politician, and a social activist.
Was a part of the social and moral reform movements widespread in Western Canada in the early 1900s. Trends in the 1920's http://www.angelfire.com/retro2/lisa3/20sfashion.html Henry Ford
http://www.hfmgv.org/exhibits/hf/ Nellie McClung Reference:http://canadaonline.about.com/cs/historywomen/p/nelliemcclung.htm Mary Pickford
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Mary_Pickford_with_camera2.jpg/250px-Mary_Pickford_with_camera2.jpg Lionel Conacher
http://www.cfhof.ca/uploads/assets/cflhof/Hall_of_Famers/Lionel_Conacher.jpg The Group of Seven
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0003476 1920 Trends
The Famous Five
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnes_Macphail hair is typically cut straight around the head at about jaw-length The Roaring Twenties was alternatively known as The Jazz Age. This "movement" in which jazz music grew in popularity by immense standards in the U.S., also influenced other parts of the world