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BioBanks

An informational review of the current scientific biobanking community.
by

Brandon Wilk

on 1 May 2013

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Transcript of BioBanks

Mary Jeff Alf Mark Brandon Amy Joe Bio-Banking {History} HeLa Cells Oldest, Most Well Used "Immortal" Cell Line Derived from cervical cancer cells in 1951 Cells taken from dieing patient, Henrietta Lacks First cells to survive in vitro proliferation Systems and Storage Frozen Tissue Samples Dried blood and saliva on paper Immortal cell lines (infinite division under suitable conditions) Independent samples, Independent Institutes DNA biobank specifics Collection of: Blood Saliva Plasma Purified DNA for use in genetic and genomic studies Maintenance and preservation of specimen Diversity of storage and retrieval methods for specimen Generalized Sample Pool "Normals" Diseased Phenotype-Genotype Cohort Consented Samples Unknown Samples Volume of biobanks currently maintained Informatics Centralized Repository of information stored locally (I.E. Coriell Institute) “Virtual” biobanks catalog 100s – 1000s of biobanks, but don't store any specimens directly
(I.E. EuroBioBank, Specimen Central) BioBank as described by the BBMRI: “biobanks may also consists of biomolecular research tools, key resources in analyses aiming at unravelling genetic and environmental factors underlying diseases and influencing their outcome” { Responsible BioBank Design Concepts } { Repository Transparency Is Essential to Ethical }
{ Responsible Research } Collection specialization contributes to the industry fragmentation.

There are physical or “real” biobanks, virtual biobanks, matchmaking services, tissue banks, and population banks...

Regional study cohorts composed of biomaterials with associated phenotypic, lifestyle, clinical, genetic, and environmental data. Bio-Bank-Breakdown “Real” Population Virtual Tissue Specific 1. Collect, Freeze, Store, and distribute physical biological spacimens (tissues, DNA, saliva, etc.)
2. Academic Biobanks typically fall into this category (Any institution, like BioVU at Vanderbilt University) 1. “organize prospective collections” of biological specimen from networks of “real” biobanks to make finding and acquiring samples easier 3. Exhibit Symbiotic relationship with “real” biobanks 2. responsible for reviewing own networks for ethical sample collection 1. Collect specific tissues for transplantation 2. Well defined donor base and consent processes (healthy tissues, specific disease tissues, highly specific tissue types) 1. Associate phenotypic, lifestyle, genetic, clinical and environmental data for general populations 2. Useful in longitudinal studies and early disease biomarker identification {Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)}
{collects from general populations} As of March 22, 2010. the resource included 80,635 samples, with an accrual rate of ~500–700 per wk.

In addition, a small percentage (~2%) of patients is randomly excluded from BioVU so that it is not possible to know whether any individual’s sample is or is not included in the biobank.

Goal is to ask the question of whether EMR-derived phenotypes can be used for human genetic-association studies. "The database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) was developed to archive and distribute the results of studies that have investigated the interaction of genotype and phenotype." genome-wide association medical sequencing molecular diagnostic assays association between genotype and non-clinical traits Where does HIPPA and Patient Privacy Come in? Consent? Data Security? Donor Protection? Ethics and Privacy Controlled Access IRB Approvals Patenting Legal Rights Moore v. Regents of the University of California Incidental Findings? Consent and Reconsenting? Questions?
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