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Chapter 13 2-8
Transcript of Chapter 13 2-8
He provided a wide range of many countries and empires with information they had never known. Delhi Sultanate B. The arrival of Islam in India was much more violent than in Africa because of the wish to spread Islam from the Arabs. Mali, Ghana, and Songhai B. Mali - indigenous African dynasty foundation, wealth from Trans-Saharan trade, adopted Islam, trade centered around Gold and Copper.
Ghana - preceded Mali empire, retained much of their culture
Songhai - one of the largest Muslim empires in history, wrestled for power with Mali, held base at Niger River. The Dhow A. A dhow was the ideal cargo and passenger ship of the Arabian Sea.
B. The dhow was a key element in trade that dominated travel in the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea, and was able to sail for long distances in just a few short months.
C. Planks of Teak wood constructed the hull, which were sewn together, instead of nailed. It also had triangular sails made of palm leaves or cotton.
D. Junks were very similar to dhows, except in their construction using nails. They were both built from strong wood, and dominated their natural seas next to them. C. Mosques were erected in India, and Hindu worship was frowned upon greatly. Hindus were "freed" from idol worship and were only allowed to worship one god. This sultanate lead to the first great centralized authority in India. D. The water-control system of this area supplied the city of Delhi with water and allowed for the growth of crops throughout the entire year. C. Timbuktu was a key point in African trade, that lied in between most of the trade routes in the Sub-Saharan trade. Swahili's Coast A. Swahili and its coast was one of the most important commercial centers of its time. It was described by Battuta as one of the most beautiful and well-built cities he had seen. Dark-skinned inhabitants were devoted Muslims. Trade was initiated for an unknown reason by Arab merchants. Great Zimbabwe A. Great Zimbabwe was a powerful state that was centered around exportation of gold from the South, copper ingots instituted wealth also from long distance trade. There is said that there were 18,000 inhabitants, that were foresters and cattle-grazers. Not much is known about religion, except their crafting of statues of rulers. Women in Asia and Africa Women were mostly in slavery, where they were VERY cheap. The tradition of widow-killing was made optional, and strict rules of fidelity and chastity were set in place. In contrast, women had lighter penalties than men concerning law. Women were not involved in active roles in society, especially commerce and politics. They were the basis of farm work during this time, and were also confined to a spinning wheel everyday. It's said that Islam led to an improvement in social structure. The only women who stood out during this time was Sultan Raziya, who was put in power, as a woman, by her father. A) Pg. 362:
1. How would the actions of these rulers have enhanced their authority? To what extent do their actions reflect Islamic influences? - The actions of the Sultans made their power greater by granting the people mercy and generousness, while also using fear tactics to make them respect him. They held the ceremonies of Islam very dear to them, and was very severe in their laws of respect for prayer and those who neglected it.
2. Although ibn Battuta tells what the rulers did, can you imagine how one of their subjects would have described his or her perception of the same events and customs? - My guess is that Battuta was high in social structure so the common people may have different views; furthermore, I think they believe the Sultan’s ruling are cruel and unusual and don’t regard him kindly.
3. Which parts of ibn Battuta’s descriptions seem to be objective and believable? Which parts are more reflective of his personal values? - The part of the description that sounded believable was his telling of the Sultan provided rations for his droughted population. The part that sounded like Battuta’s own views was his perception of the king as a cruel, but respectable ruler.