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Conventional vs. Organic Apples: Enzymatic Browning

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Group 4 Project

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Conventional vs. Organic Apples: Enzymatic Browning

Our Experiment:
What is Enzymatic Browning?
Organic Apples
Organic Fruits Studies
Why?
Variables:
The non-organic apple may have browned faster because it has been kept in very low oxygen, cold storage for so long, so it run out of the natural preservatives and when it is cut open and finally exposed to oxygen, it will oxidate at a much faster rate. The salt was the most effective at preserving the apple's freshness because it restrain the activity of polyphenol oxidase so that the oxidation (Enzymatic Browning) is slower.
The Results:
We found that the non-organic apple browned faster and showed up darker than that of the organic apple, which was universal for all three types of preservatives. We also found that salt as a preservative protected the apples almost completely from browning, with olive oil coming in second as most effective and vinegar being least effective.
Conventional vs. Organic Apples: Enzymatic Browning
When an apple is cut, oxygen is introduced to the tissues. The O-Quinones in the apple tissues react with the amino acids and proteins to produce the brown color.

"The biggest study ever of organic food was completed in 2007 and found that organic fruit and vegetables contain up to 40% more antioxidants than conventional equivalents."
- Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that aid in preventing or delaying cell damage.
Organic Fruits Studies
Another study has also been done in 2001 where a panel was selected and conventional vs. organic apples were tasted.
In this study, done at Washington State University, found that organic apples ultimately tasted sweeter ( as well as had a better taste and texture).
They concluded that this may be because of the higher soil quality of organic fruits than conventionally grown ones.
Store-Bought Apples
-Apples found in large supermarkets or grocery chains are not fresh
-They are picked during peak season of August or September and sprayed with 1-MCP (a chemical used to slow down the ripening process) they are then placed in cold storage for up to a year
-Because they are in cold storage for a year, they start to lose their natural antioxidants after about 3 months, and by the time they are in stores, they have lost them almost all together

In our experiment we took an organic apple, and a store bought apple. Cut each of these apples into three parts(same exposed area) and put 3 different natural preservatives of salt, olive oil, and vinegar on the 6 sections to see which type of apple would brown faster and which preservative was most effective.
Research Question:
How do organic and conventional apples differ in enzymatic browning when exposed to preservatives.

And which preservative is the most effective salt, olive oil, or vinegar.
Hypothesis:
The conventional apple will brown faster with a darker brown than the organic apple.

Salt is the most effective preservative with vinegar and then olive oil following it.
(10' before)
(10' later)
Control:
The amount of preservative on each apple, room temperature

Independent:
Type of apples(Organic vs. non-organic Granny Smith apple)

Dependent:
The rate and amount of which they brown
Control:
The type of apples, the amount of preservatives on each slice,room temperature

Independent:
Type of preservative

Dependent:
The rate and amount of which they brown
New Type! GMO Apples:
inorganic
inorganic
Analysis:
Organic apples are richer in vitamins, minerals, enzymes, trace elements and other nutrients than the apples produced by chemical based methods. In a recent study, antioxidant levels found in organically grown vegetables were almost 30% higher than conventional chemically enhanced apples.
Neal Carter, president of Okanagan Specialty Fruits, in British Columbia, Canada, has created the new, non-browning, "Arctic" apples.
The non-browning trait was created by inserting extra copies of genes that the apple already possessed. These genes normally create an enzyme called polyphenol oxidase, which is responsible for the chemical reaction that causes browning.
Soon after being sliced, a conventional Granny Smith apple (left) starts to brown, while a newly developed GM Granny Smith stays fresher looking.
Behold the future of the apple
At the moment, there are non-browning versions of Golden Delicious and Granny Smith apples. The U.S. Department of Agriculture has allowed Okanagan Specialty Fruits to produce them in test plots covering a few acres in the states of New York and Washington. Carter says his company now is working to put the trait in Fuji and Gala apples, too.
Impacts on Environment:
Environmental impacts of genetically modified organisms include the disruption of food web in the ecosystem which have a negative impact on pollinating insects such as bees and buterflies. Pet resistance genes from genetically modified crops disrupt the food web in the soil.
Health Concerns
We do not know what some of the pesticides sprayed on the conventional apples can do to human

It had been found that there are cases, where more than 40 different pesticides were found on them.

There are efforts to keep the amount of pesticides low, however over time resistance of the pests builds up.

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