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The Detailed Life of Thomas Cranmer, 1489-1556
Transcript of The Detailed Life of Thomas Cranmer, 1489-1556
Alsacton, England. Thomas Cranmer The college he attended was here, Cambridge University Stephen Gardiner Hereford Cathedral Cranmer's work really started when he stated that if the canonists and universities believe that a marriage to a “deceased brother’s widow” was against the law, and if a marriage of Catherine of Aragon to King Henry's older brother, King Arthur, could be proven, then Henry’s divorce could happen with the regular court’s approval, when two of King Henry’s chief counselors, Stephen Gardiner(later Bishop of Winchester) and Edward Fox (later Bishop of Hereford) questioned him about the ”divorce”. Young King Henry VIII, after coronation in 1509 Then was commanded by King to “ lay aside all other pursuits and to devote himself to the question of the divorce.” When it was completed he had to present his arguments to Cambridge and Oxford University, with the 2 chief counselors. First, he was ordered to write a treatise, including his proposed course, and backing it up with disputes from scripture, “the fathers and the decrees of general councils”. Oxford University Goal was to alliance Lutheran princes and to remove some English trade restrictions Afterward, he had to do this again, this time to a higher tribunal. The Pope treated him well and even gave him the title “Grand Penitentiary of England.”
Returned September 1530, but in the summer of 1530 traveled to Germany as the ambassador to the emperor. Older Map of Germany In Nuremberg, he met his acquaintance, Andreas Osainder, who had many similar theological ideas as him.
He fell in love and married Margaret, Osainder’s niece in 1532. Osainder,German Lutheran theologian Picture: Tomb of William Warham, who held the title Cranmer would receive next. He did not want a primacy- he did not want to become a bishop.
Unfortunately Archbishop William Warham died in August of that year.
He sent his wife to England to safety, as he was shocked and hoping that the situation would change, therefore delaying his return to England. The request was confirmed by the Pope in January and February 1533.
Had a special protest, stating that he “swore allegiance” to pope, only if it was consistent with his duty to the king. His first task, of course, was the divorce.
Every day during the first week of April Convocation, he studiously came up with questions relating to King Henry’ marriage and Queen Katherine’s marriage to his older brother, King Arthur. Catherine of Aragon, 24, around the time she married King Henry. King Arthur, age 15 Annulled Catherine of Aragon’s marriage to King Henry VIII in 1533, allowing him to marry Anne Boleyn. Then, he wrote a letter out to the king. The court was to be held at Dunstable, close to where the Queen was residing, so it would be easier to attend.
She was a no show.
“The Act of Appeals had already prohibited any appeal from the archbishop's court.” Was given Archbishop of Canterbury title on March 30, 1533 at Westminster. Dunstable Priory: Place where King Henry's divorce ocurred In 5 days time, Henry and Anne Boleyn’s marriage was considered valid, even though they were married secretly on January 25th, 1533.
Anne’s coronation was June 1st, crowned by Cranmer,and proclaimed godfather of baby Elizabeth I 3 days after her birth (September 10, 1533) Mary Boleyn, Older Sister. May 17th 1536- Henry’s marriage to Anne Boleyn is declared invalid.
Her sister was Henry’s mistress, leading Anne into danger. This law was changed 11 yrs ago by pope, but was restored back into place. After Anne Boleyn's death, he was without task, so he decided to work on his main goals. His 2 main goals: to persuade a translated Bible into the vernacular(English) and ordering “that a copy of the Bible in English should be set up in every church in a convenient place for reading” in 1538.
He also wanted to adjust the wrongfulness of the church, which by his main goal later in his life. Excerpt from King's Book He strongly disliked the Six Articles of 1539, and stood basically alone. He also, in 1540-1543, was also head of the revision of "Bishop's Book" (1537) or Institutions of a Christian Man and preparing of Necessary Erudition (1543) , or “King’s Book”, a variation of work of the Roman Catholic direction.
June 1545- Litany- shows evidence of his rhythmic English style. He was a very forgiving man.
He was present of the King Henry 's death. (1547)
“By the will of the king he was nominated one of a council of regency composed of sixteen persons...”
He confirmed Edward VI coronation, parliament gave him the grant to reign first. They shortened his ceremony- Edward was not a healthy child. Thomas More records of Edward:-
' He was a goodly personage and very princely to behold; of heart courageous, politic in counsel, in adversity nothing abashed, in prosperity rather joyful than proud, in peace just and merciful, in war sharp and fierce, in the field bold and hardy, and nevertheless no further than wisdom would, adventurous. He was of visage lovely; of body mighty, strong and clean made; howbeit in his latter days, with over liberal diet, somewhat corpulent and burly but nevertheless noy uncomely. He was in youth greatly given to fleshy wantoness, from which health of body in great prosperity and fortune, without a special grace, hardly refrains.' Translated German Catechism of Justus Jonas, which is also known as Cranmer’s Catechism in 1538.
Defence of the True and Catholic Doctrine of the Sacrament was published in 1550. 2 prayerbooks made for Edward VI: 1st: finished November 1548, approved legally March 1549. 2nd: completed and legally approved April 1552.
He personally did most of the work-42 Edward VI articles published in 1553 are mostly credited to Cranmer. The 42 Articles expressed the Church of England's position on the recent religious controversies. He also made a law that explained how to execute someone accused of heresy, which was published in Latin by Dr. Walter Haddon and Sir John Cheke. He personally condemned Joan Bocher to burning, but didn’t like persecution. The Execution of Lady Jane Grey
by Paul Delaroche Stood on Edward’s death bed; he, against his own rules, signed Lady Jane Grey queen, and stayed devoted to her, alone and deserted. With Lady Jane Grey, her companion, and two other Dudleys, were accused of treason. Sent to Tower of London on September 14th, 1553, on Mary’s orders, along with Nicholas Ridley and Latimer.
Wrote a protest letter against mass. Although unpublished, a copy was fished out and given to council. Pictures(Left to Right):
Mary I of England at 24 years old; Nicholas Ridley, and Bishop Hugh Latimer Burning of Latimer, Oxford, 8/16/1555 March 1554- him and other 2 got transferred in Bocardo(common prison) in Oxford.
2 other companions were burned October 16th, 1555. He was tried by papal commission, with Bishop Brooks of Gloucester present, in September 1555. Southern view of Bocardo prison Subscribed 2 of the 6 recantations November 25th-excommunicated, and forced to give up archbishop title. Traditionally carried out with “humiliating ceremonies in Christ Church”, Oxford, 14th Feb.1556. 4 last things- declared bravely that what he done had “troubled” him mare than anything he said or done, refused all 6 recantations as written with his own hand, contrary to the truth at which lies in his heart, and finally, since his hand had offended, his right hand shall be burned first. March 21st- Taken to St. Mary’s, asked to repeat his recantation in the hearing of the people as promised St. Mary's ~Oxford, March 21st, 1556
Remembered as a martyr for his dramatic execution Well known/ original drawing of Cranmer's execution Book 3: 'Thomas'
- My ancestor Thomas Cranmer and the content of his dreams and reflections whilst imprisoned and leading up to his execution. -Darren "Dan" Cranmer Another depiction of his execution. Followed by a video! The next slides are quotes from a document written by an innocent bystander, who was present of his execution. “And because the morning was much rainy”
“was made in St Mary's church”
“whither Dr Cranmer was brought by the mayor and aldermen, and my lord Williams: with whom came divers gentlemen of the shire, sir T A Bridges, sir John Browne, and others.”
“Where was prepared, over against the pulpit, a high place for him, that all the people might see him. And, when he had ascended it, he kneeled him down and prayed, weeping tenderly: which moved a great number to tears, that had conceived an assured hope of his conversion and repentance....” Setting? “whither Dr Cranmer was brought by the mayor and aldermen, and my lord Williams: with whom came divers gentlemen of the shire, sir T A Bridges, sir John Browne, and others.”
“Where was prepared, over against the pulpit, a high place for him, that all the people might see him. And, when he had ascended it, he kneeled him down and prayed, weeping tenderly: which moved a great number to tears, that had conceived an assured hope of his conversion and repentance....” Setting Cont. 'Good people, I had intended indeed to desire you to pray for me; which because Mr Doctor hath desired, and you have done already, I thank you most heartily for it. And now will I pray for myself, as I could best devise for mine own comfort, and say the prayer, word for word, as I have here written it.' 1st Part of Speech: “…after kneeled down, and said the Lord's Prayer; and all the people on their knees devoutly praying with him....”
“…then rising, he said, 'Every man desireth, good people, at the time of their deaths, to give some good exhortation, that other may remember after their deaths, and be the better thereby. So I beseech God grant me grace, that I may speak something, at this my departing, whereby God may be glorified, and you edified.... Transition and 2nd Part of Speech: And now I come to the great thing that troubleth my conscience more than nay other thing that ever I said or did in my life: and that is, the setting abroad of writings contrary to the truth. Which here now I renounce and refuse, as things written with my hand, contrary to the truth which I thought in my heart, and written for fear of death, and to save my life, if it might be: and that is, all such bills, which I have written or signed with mine own hand since my degradation: wherein I have written many things untrue. And forasmuch as my hand offended in writing contrary to my heart, therefore my hand shall first be punished: for if I may come to the fire, it shall be first burned. And as for the pope, I refuse him, as Christ's enemy and antichrist, with all his false doctrine.'” 3rd Part of Speech: 'Alas, my lord, I have been a man that all my life loved plainness, and never dissembled till now against the truth; which I am most sorry for it.' “And here he was suffered to speak no more.... Then was he carried away; and a great number, that did run to see him go so wicjedly to his death, ran after him, exhorting him, while time was, to remember himself. And one Friar John, a godly and well learned man, all the way traveled with him to reduce him.”
“Coming to the stake with a cheerful countenance and willing mind, he put off his garments with haste, and stood upright in his shirt..." Execution? "...and bachelor of divinity, named Elye, of Brazen-nose college, labored to convert him to his former recantation, with the two Spanish friars. And when the friars saw his constancy, they said in Latin to one another 'Let us go from him: we ought not to be nigh him: for the devil is with him.' But the bachelor of divinity was more earnest with him: unto whom he answered, that, as concerning his recantation, he repented it right sore, because he knew it was against the truth; with other words more. " Execution cont. But the bachelor of divinity refused to take him by the hand, and blamed all the others that so did, and said, he was sorry that ever he came in his company. And yet again he required him to agree to his former recantation. And the bishop answered, (showing his hand), 'This was the hand that wrote it, and therefore shall it suffer first punishment.'” Execution cont. “Fire being now put to him, he stretched out his right hand, and thrust it into the flame, and held it there a good space, before the fire came to any other part of his body; where his hand was seen of every man sensibly burning, crying with a loud voice, 'This hand hath offended.' As soon as the fire got up, he was very soon dead, never stirring or crying all the while.” Fire and Video! Chelsea Black
1st Block:) Thanks for Viewing! Thomas Cranmer definitely had a positive impact in society. Without him, King Henry would have been just like his father- not well-known. The Common Book of Prayer books wouldn't have existed, or The Great Bible. Some aspects of The English Reformation would have been lost, since Thomas Cranmer contributed a lot of change to this time period. To verify this, he was one of the most influential religious leaders during the Reformation. Negative or Positive Impact? Stained glass window
of Cranmer, located in
The American Church in Paris, France. (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Thomas Cranmer
by summerduckday Myles Coverdale was hired in 1537 to write a new English Bible which would be available to all churches. In 1539, The Great Bible was published. Was printed 5 times and a revision was made years later. It was replaced with the Bishop's Bible. In 1537, King Henry sent a license, demanding for The Coverdale Bible and The Matthew Tyndale Bible to be printed in the country. A year later, he proposed that the English Bible copies should be available in every church through England. Also known as Cranmer's Bible, since he wrote the preface. The Great Bible was the first known bible to be exposed to the public. A copy was given to every church; it was chained to pulpits, and was even read out to the illiterate. Its name originated from the size of the book: it was “a large pulpit folio measuring over 14 inches tall.” Seven versions of this edition were published around April 1539 through December 1541. Why the Great Bible?