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Geothermal Energy

by: Kate, Vivian, and Esmy 9B
by

ryeowook super junior

on 8 March 2013

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Transcript of Geothermal Energy

Geothermal energy is the heat from the Earth. It is produced from naturally occurring steam and hot water trapped in reservoirs under the surface of the earth. The most active geothermal spots are found near volcanoes and fault lines but can also occur where there are hot springs, geysers, and geothermal reservoirs. Geothermal energy can also be simulated by injecting water deep into Earth's crust, so that it heats up and turns into steam. The intensity of this energy increases with depth. A global average for Earth’s geothermal gradient (temperature increase with depth) is approximately 30°C/km.
Geothermal energy has two primary sources: primordial heat, and radioactive decay.
Primordial heat is what resulted from the creation of Earth 4.5 million years ago. The energy and mass from colliding cosmic forces made the Earth a burning piece of space debris. As the exterior of Earth cooled down, it then acted as an insulator for the thermal energy in it's core, which explains why Earth is cool and able to sustain life on the outside, but is a mass of hot rock and metal at it's core.
A selection of the original matter that were part of Earth's original composition were radioactive. As the elements start to decay gradually, they generate additional thermal energy and heat Earth's interior.
- The who used hot springs for cooking, bathing and cleaning.
-First industrial use was in Pisa, Italy, in the late 18th century, in the Larderllo fields
-from mid 1800 to early 1900s, hot springs were commercially used; tourism( spas)
-1904,Italian scientist Piero Ginori Conti invented the first geothermal electric power plant in which steam was used to generate the power.
-1960s, first large scale geothermal power plant in San Francisco, producing 11 megawatts.
-In 1973, when oil crisis began many countries began looking for renewable energy sources and by 1980s geothermal heat pumps (GHP) started gaining popularity in order to reduce heating and cooling costs.
-In 1922 the U.S.A's first geothermal power plant went down in history in producing 250 kilowatts which could light the streets and buildings in the area. This plant didn't last very long however, due to the little power output compared to other sites across the globe.
-During the 1960's, the first large scale industrial geothermal energy power plant was constructed in the U.S.A and produces 11 megawatts of environmentally friendly, renewable, geothermal electricity.
-From the 1960's onwards, many organizations and governing bodies are set up to manage, research, and develop new and improved geothermal energy sites and technologies. REFERENCES:

"CanGEA." CanGEA. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <http://www.cangea.ca/geothermal-energy/>.
"Energy Source: Geothermal | Renewable Energy & Efficiency | Pembina Institute." Energy Source: Geothermal | Renewable Energy & Efficiency | Pembina Institute. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. <http://www.pembina.org/re/sources/geothermal>.
"$70 Million Aims to Improve Geothermal Technology." RE News RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2013.
"GEOTHERMAL ENERGY ASSOCIATION." Geothermal Basics. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. <http://geo-energy.org/basics.aspx>.
"Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative." Geothermal Energy. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. <http://www.helmholtzalberta.ca/Research/Energy/EnergyResearchAreas/GeothermalEnergy.aspx>.
"History Of Geothermal Energy." Conserve Energy Future. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. <http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/GeothermalEnergyHistory.php>.
"How an Enhanced Geothermal System Works." Geothermal Technologies Office:. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Mar. 2013. <http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/egs_animation.html>.
"Alberta Geothermal - Welcome." Alberta Geothermal. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2013.
"Direct Use of Geothermal Energy." Geothermal Technologies Office:. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2013.
"GEOTHERMAL ENERGY ASSOCIATION." Geothermal Basics. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Feb. 2013. What are the positive and negative impacts of using your form of electricity production? What improvements will/are being made for the future? G E O T H E R M A L E N E R G Y B Y : K A T E H U , V I V I A N T O N, A N D E S M E R A L D A X U The impact of the current use of Geothermal technology is equivalent to taking 1.6 million cars off the road, planting more than 346 million trees or reducing the U.S. dependence on foreign crude oil by 19.3 million barrels a year. There are more than 900,000 geothermal installations in the U.S. alone. There are three types of geothermal power plants: dry steam, flash, and binary. BINARY
Recent advances in geothermal technology have made possible the economic production of electricity from geothermal resources lower than 150°C (302°F). Binary plants typically use an Organic Rankine Cycle system. The geothermal water heats another liquid that has a boiling point lower than that of water's. The two liquids are kept separate through the use of a heat exchanger, which transfers the heat energy from the geothermal water to the working fluid. The secondary fluid expands into gaseous vapor. The force of the vapor turns the turbines that power the generators. All of the produced geothermal water is injected back into the reservoir. FLASH
Flash plants pull deep, high-pressure hot water into cooler, low-pressure water.
Pressurized geothermal heated water is separated in a surface vessel (called a steam separator) into steam and hot water. The steam is delivered to the turbine, and the turbine powers a generator. The liquid is injected back into the reservoir. DRY STEAM
Dry steam, the oldest geothermal technology, takes steam out of fractures in the ground and uses it to directly drive a turbine. Most geothermal power plants in the future will be binary plants as they are the most efficient. Binary geothermal plants are extremely efficient, reduce geothermal energy’s already low emission rate to zero.
Geothermal electricity generation is currently used in 24 countries,while geothermal heating is in use in 70 countries. The best location for a geothermal plant is along a fault line, or somewhere where there is a lot of crust activity. Places belonging to 'the Pacific ring of fire' are typical examples.

Geothermal energy generates about 10,000 megawatts of the world's electricity, enough to power 10 million homes. Canadian Geothermal Energy Association reports that Canada could generate more than 5000 megawatts alone by tapping into already mapped heat sources of Earth energy.
The reliability of geothermal energy production, for geothermal is up to 97 per cent, which is similar to nuclear. However, it can be much cheaper and safer to develop. A study in British Columbia put the cost of geothermal generated electricity at 5.09 cents per kilowatt-hour. This data was compared to 32 cents for remote diesel, 7.7 cents for small hydro, and 10.88 cents for wind. The largest conventional resources for geothermal power in Canada are located in British Columbia, Yukon and Alberta; these regions also contain potential for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.
The remaining Canadian provinces and territories contain potential for Enhanced Geothermal. Low temperature - or direct heat potential (sometimes called geothermal heating) exist everywhere in Canada What is
Geothermal Energy? What is the history of your form of electricity production? Is your method of electricity production currently being used? Where? How much? HOW IT'S DONE For Alberta and Canada Geothermal steam and hot water naturally contain occurring traces of hydrogen sulfide (a gas that smells like rotten eggs) and other gases and chemicals that can be harmful in high concentrations. Geothermal power plants use "scrubber" systems to clean the air of hydrogen sulfide and the other gases. Sometimes theses gases are even converted into marketable products, such as liquid fertilizer. Newer geothermal power plants can even inject these gases back into the geothermal wells. Geothermal development is often allowed on federal lands because it does not significantly harm the environment. The Geothermal Power Plant For Alberta If you want your own geothermal plant for heating, you can get services from geothermal system and drilling companies in Alberta.
The bills for electric appliances in homes usually come from heating and cooling of water, which is exactly the type of energy that geothermal systems can generate- exactly the kind of money you would save, which is about 30 to 40%
There are two types of geothermal energy systems for single homes: open loop and closed loop. Open loop systems are used in rural areas with a well. Closed loop systems are more common with homes; they use a piping loop. Both systems suck heat out of the ground.
On a larger scale, establishing a working complex, with a six-kilometres deep injection well and a second collecting well, would cost around $7.8 million. The output would be about 60 megawatts, enough to power 60,000 homes.
Theoretically, if Albert a had 15 of these, it would be sufficient to serve all of our population. One step in moving forward with geothermal technologies is Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), which dramatically expands the use of geothermal energy by making the extraction of heat more plentiful and efficient. The EGS concept is to extract heat by creating a fracture system to which water can be added through injection wells. Creating an enhanced, or engineered, geothermal system requires improving the natural permeability of rock (a rock is permeable if it has many pores and minute fractures in it). Injected water is heated by contact with the rock and returns to the surface through production wells, as in naturally permeable rocks. EGS are reservoirs created to improve the economics of resources without adequate water and/or permeability in the rocks. Other improvements that will be made/already (recently) have made:
•Advanced drilling technologies.
•Advanced well completion technologies.
•Tools to isolate fracture zones within a well.
•Observation tools and data collection system to monitor reservoir.
•Geophysical exploration technologies will better locate hidden resources.
•Getting better at predicting reservoir temperatures Geothermal plants emit about 5% of the carbon dioxide, 1% of the sulfur dioxide, and less than 1% of the nitrous oxide emitted by a
coal-fired plant of equal size, and certain types of geothermal plants produce near-zero emissions.
hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and carbon dioxide are extremely low, especially when compared to fossil fuel emissions. The binary geothermal plant, which currently represents around 15% of all geothermal plant capacity, along with the flash/binary plant, produce nearly zero air emissions. Even dry steam plants, which are considered to have the highest levels of air emissions, are considered environmentally benign compared with fossil fuels FIXING CONS emissions The Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative Research

This is an Albertan research facility that does the following:
Finding locations with the highest temperatures close to the surface
Using geological and geophysical technologies to determine the properties of the rocks beneath northern Alberta
Determining the best locations in Alberta to apply the EGS system, so that fluids can be made to flow through the rock and extract heat
Use computer simulations to determine how best to extract heat from the rock
Find ways to save money on building plants FUN FACT! Reykjavik, Iceland heats 95 percent of its buildings using geothermal energy, and is considered one of the cleanest cities in the world Any other interesting facts? High upfront and construction cost, but will pay off in later years- it's worth it! Commercial geothermal power projects are expensive. Total costs usually end up somewhere between $2 – 7 million for a geothermal power plant with a capacity of 1 megawatt (MW).

The upfront costs of geothermal heating and cooling systems are also steep. On the other hand, these systems are likely to save you money years down the line, and should therefore be regarded as long-term investments. Ground source heat pumps typically costs $3,000 – $10,000 and have a payback time of 10-20 years. PROS:
Almost entirely emission free
Zero carbon, and minimal sulfite and
The process can scrub out sulfur that might have otherwise been released
No fuel required (no mining or transportation)
Not subject to the same fluctuations as solar or wind
Virtually limitless supply of constant energy
Ability to provide base load or peak power
Already cost competitive in some areas
Can be built underground
Some level of geothermal energy available in most areas WATER USAGE Air cooled geothermal power plants do not consume any water. Geothermal plants that use water for cooling typically use Geothermal reservoir fluids which are not fresh or potable and cannot be used for other purposes due to their temperature and mineral content. geothermal water or steam condensate but not fresh water. Geothermal power plants could also produce potable water from geothermal condensate, and at least one such plant was designed recently for use in East Africa. Also in water-cooled plants, fluid not lost to evaporation is injected back into the geothermal reservoir to maintain reservoir pressure. CONS Prime sites are often far from population centers, so energy is lost due to long distance transmission of electricity
High construction costs
Drilling into heated rock is very difficult
Difficult to manage heat and not overuse it Geothermal production is compatible with many environments. They have been established in deserts, in the middle of crops, and in mountain forests.
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