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Chartres Cathedral

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by

Alexa Link

on 13 March 2014

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Transcript of Chartres Cathedral

Chartres Cathedral
Cathedral School
In the Middle Ages, Chartres also functioned as an important cathedral school.
In the early 11th century, Bishop Fulbert established Chartres as one of the leading schools in Europe.
Great scholars were attracted to the cathedral school, including Thierry of Chartres, William of Conches and the Englishman John of Salisbury.
The men were very influential the intense intellectual rethinking that culminated in what is now known as the twelfth-century renaissance
Eventually was eclipsed by the newly emerging University of Paris.
Stained Glass
Total of 176 stained glass windows; most are from the 12th and 13th centuries.
No direct light enters the building; It is all filtered through stained glass.
This creates a rather dark environment, but also gives each room incredibly rich color at any time of the day.
These windows contain a myriad narrative and symbolic images and stories.
More About Architecture
Total of 117,060 square feet
In the center of Chartres is the only maze still in tact in France (320 yards in the floor of the nave of the church)
The nave in Chartres Cathedral is wider than any other cathedral in France (121 feet tall, 54 feet wide)
Choir enclosure includes 200 statues and 41 scenes
History
Medieval Roman Rite Catholic Cathedral
Cathedral Basilica of Our Lady of Chartres
Located in Chartres, France (about 50 miles southwest of Paris)
Consecrated on October 24, 1260 in the presence of King Louis IX of France
Cathedral was dedicated to the Virgin Mary and claimed to possess the robe that Mary wore when giving birth to Christ.
Perhaps the finest example of French Gothic architecture
Revered as a triple masterpiece for architecture, sculpture, and a survivor of two major fires, wars and revolutions.
The last of at least 5 cathedrals resurrected at this site in Chartres
Considered "one of the most compelling expressions of the strength and poetry of medieval Catholicism"
Works Cited
http://www.paintingsilove.com/image/show/286150/chartres-cathedral
http://www.chartrescathedral.net
http://www.fischerarthistory.com/chartres-cathedral.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chartres_Cathedral
http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/27086735?q&l-decade=113&c=picture&versionId=32643789
Gothic Architecture
Chartres is considered a "milestone in the development of Western architecture
Gothic period: from about 1100-1400
Contains key structural elements of new Gothic architecture
Pointed arches, rib-and-panel vault and flying buttresses.
Height was very important
Increased wall space being devoted to windows, particularly stained glass
Rose Windows
The cathedral has three large rose windows.

Three Facades
Chartres Cathedral has three great facades, each containing three portals
In each facade, the central portal is particularly large and was only used for special ceremonies
The smaller side portals allowed everyday access for the different communities that used the cathedral.
South Transept Facade
North Transept Facade
West Facade
Also known as the Portail Royal
The two lateral doors would have been the first entry point for most visitors to Chartres
The central door was only opened for the entry of processions on major festivals
Addresses the time from Christ's death until his resurrection.
The central portal concentrates on the Last Judgement and the Apostles
The left portal concentrates on the lives of martyrs.
The right focuses on the confessor saints.
In northern Europe it is common for the iconography on the north side of a church to focus on Old Testament themes
Concentrates on the precursors of Christ, leading up to the moment of his incarnation, with a particular emphasis on the Virgin Mary
Full transcript