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O'Brian Perkins NCDs Communicable Disease CREs Kalisha Vice O'Brian Perkins Linda Vincent-Charles Obesity and the US Kelly Lirette Cholera http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/avian-in-humans.htm Spread of Cholera in Haiti Supporting conditions Precautions High susceptibility of population Loss of sanitary conditions following ecological event Importance of proper disposal of waste and establishment of defecation areas Treatment Difficulties posed by dehydration and malaise Influenza Biological Warfare Dengue Fever Cholera Dengue Fever Influenza H3N2v
Varient viruses originate in pigs
307 cases in USA reported 01/12-09/12 H5N1
Transmitted by close contact with sick or dead infected poultry
Signs and symptoms Prevention is key Environmental influences for migration Signs and Symptoms Anthrax
Attn: inhalation, skin contact, ingestion
White powder substance or spores from animal contact. Small Pox
Used in history-against native americans
Vaccine is best defense http://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/smallpox/diagnosis/#highlights http://www.cdc.gov/Dengue/
The Atlantic Wire
"CRE are bacteria which live inside the body but can cause infections if they travel out of the gut"
"...a potentially catastrophic threat to public health"
(MARCH 11, 2013) Marcy Morris Who are they? MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus)
C.Diff (Clostridium Difficile) http://www.pewhealth.org/reports-analysis/issue-briefs/mrsa-a-deadly-pathogen-with-fewer-and-fewer-treatment-options-85899380134
http://www.rcmd.com/blog/34-billion-how-control-cost-mrsa-healthcare http://www.mrsasurvivors.org/c-difficile http://www.nbcnews.com/id/24407803/#.UUH3Thm0xn1
http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/Daily-Reports/2012/August/16/curbing-c-diff.aspx CRE (Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae) CRE
The newest superbug
resistant to "last resort" medications NBC Nightly news clip
http://www.npr.org/2012/09/18/161355297/hospitals-fight-to-stop-superbugs-spread •42 states have now identified at least one case of CRE
•4.6 % of hospitals and 17.8 percent of LTC facilities diagnosed this bug in the first half of 2012
•Mortality rates as high as 40%-50% News from the CDC The rise of CREs HSA4113 Issues and Trends in Health Care What will it take to stop these 'Superbugs'? MRSA
•Universal nasal surveillance
•Only take antibiotics prescribed by your doctor
•Use a probiotic
•"Dozens of hospitals around the country have beaten back their C. diff infection rates by being more aggressive."
•Testing/Fecal transplants CREs
•Testing upon admission
•"Detect and Protect" (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease Hep B HPV Hepatitis 4 Different types HepA
HepD Causes It is caused by the blood of the infected individual infiltrating the body of someone uninfected. Risks Getting tattoos with disinfected needles
Exposure to infected blood via sexual contact or by birth Human Papilloma Virus The facts: There are 100 types of HPV and 40 affect the genital area
HPV strand 6, 11, 16, 18 are the ones that are more prevalent which cause genital warts and cervical cancer. There are no test for men!
50% of all sexually active individuals will contract this disease at least once in their lives.
It is not a curable disease but it can be treated and vaccinated against. Signs and Symptoms Treatment Warts in and around genital area Vaccination Pubic Lice Gonorrhea Herpes Chlamydia Prevention
Abstinence Impact on America One in two Americans will contract an STD at some point in their lifetimes
An estimated 65 million Americans are living with a viral STD
STDs are spreading at a rate of 19 million new cases each year
One in two sexually active persons will contract an STD by age 25
One in four teens contract an STD each year
Less than half of adults ages 18 to 44 have ever been tested for an STD other than HIV
Over 6 million Americans acquire the virus that causes genital warts each year
An estimated one in four Americans (50 million) have genital herpes; and, about 1.6 million new infections occur each year
More than $8 billion is spent each year to diagnose and treat STDs and their complications Lifestyle choices VS inevitable encounters The most important question, at this point, is whether the rapid spread of STDs are a reflection of our lack of control and irresponsibility or if it is becoming a epidemic that is beyond our control?
If people become more informed and practice prevention methods there could a large decline in new cases a year.
However, many of these diseases are becoming resistant to vaccinations and medication. They also spread easily and the slightest mistake can cause any one to contract the disease.
Who is really to blame?
One thing is certain! We cannot change the fact that STDs are prevalent in our society. What we can change is how they impact us by practicing healthier and safer sex. Cost of Obesity Obesity in America is now an astounding $190 billion to the annual national healthcare expense which exceeds smoking when it comes to cost.
The high cost of being significantly overweight manifests in a variety of ways, ranging from the increased insurance premiums we all pay to subsidize the added medical charges incurred by the obese to the surprisingly dramatic impact our collective pounds has on energy costs. Hypertension Known as high blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the wall of arteries as the heart pumps blood.
Hypertension greatly increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure.
Being overweight increases the likelihood of developing high blood pressure, so much so that blood pressure rises and body weight increases.
Losing weight can regulate and help lower high blood pressure Smoking Harmful effects of smoking Causes
Cardiovascular disease Associated risks
increasesd risk of heart disease by 2-4 times
increased risk of stroke by 2-4 times
Men-23 times more likely to develop lung cancer; women- 13 times Being self aware and self evident of how food and lifestyle choices directly affect your health is how this obesity and smoking epidemic stops or at least slows down. Its clear that obesity causes the four leading causes of death. It all begins with individuals realizing that overeating and eating fattening foods is no good. Obesity is something that kills more people that aids and leads to heart disease, a legion of cancers, respiratory diseases and stroke. Smoking has many of the same adverse affects and they both are a matter of choice. A Solution HIV In the United States, where HIV care costs the most, the annual price of treatment averages about $20,000 per patient.
This year alone, the United States will spend nearly $15 billion on HIV care and medication, yet funding shortfalls mean that more than 2,000 patients remain on a waiting list for antiretroviral, and many others are not receiving treatment for co-infections such as hepatitis C
Monthly HIV regime range from $2000 to $5000 per month (most of this is for medications)
With the life expectancy of HIV patients increasing, the lifetime cost of treatment is estimated at more then half a million dollars. Cost associated with HIV treatment for patients. HIV Treatment cost to government Estimated New HIV Infections in the United States, 2010,for the Most Affected Sub-populations Maternal Transmission of HIV Maternal/Vertical transmission (also known as mother to child transmission) is the transmission of an infection or other disease from the parental generation of the species to the offspring.
Reduction of maternal transmission of HIV is one of the most effective public health initiatives in the U.S.
Before the current treatment era approximately 2000 babies per year were infected with HIV in the United States.
Currently the number of maternal transmissions are approximately 300 infants a year, despite the current increasing HIV prevalence.
In the absence of treatment the risk of maternal HIV transmission is as high as 25 to 30 percent.
With the implementation of HIV testing, counseling, antiretroviral medication, delivery by cesarean section prior to onset of labor, and discouraging breastfeeding, the mother-to-infant transmission has decreased to less than 2% in the United States. "When we can avert HIV infections," says David Holtgrave, a professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. "We're not only saving lives. We're also saving dollars as well.“