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Ann Gamboa

on 3 November 2014

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Transcript of Earthquakes

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Clues To Earth's Interior
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.

Forces per unit area that act on a material compression, tension, and shear.

Deformation of materials in response to stress.
Seismometers and Seismograms
Richter Scale
Moment Magnitude Scale
Modified Mercalli Scale
Determine Location of Earthquakes
US Seismic Risk Map
Fracture or system of fractures in Earth’s crust that occurs when stress is applied too quickly or stress is too great; can form as a result of

horizontal compression (reverse fault)
horizontal shear (strike-slip fault)
horizontal tension (normal fault)
Seismic wave that squeezes and pulls rocks in the same direction that the wave travels, causing rock particles to move back and forth.
Seismic wave that causes rock particles to move at right angles to the direction of the wave.
Surface Waves
Photograph of severely deformed sedimentary rock layers exposed in a road-cut San Andreas Fault zone
Horizontal compression
Horizontal Shear
Horizontal Tension
Measure of the energy released during an earthquake, which can be described using the Richter.
Numerical scale used to measure the magnitude of an earthquake, using values based on the size of the earthquake's largest seismic waves.
Scale used to measure earthquakes magnitude-taking into account the size of the fault rupture, the rocks' stiffness, and amount of movement along the fault-using values that can be estimated from the size of several types of seismic waves.
Measures earthquake intensity on a scale from I to XII; the higher the number, the greater the damage the earthquake has caused.
Three seismic stations are plotted on a map-the intersection is the epicenter.
San Andreas Fault
1906 San Francisco Earthquake
San Andreas Fault
Focus- Point of the initial fault rupture where an earthquake originates that usually lies at least several kilometers beneath Earth's surface.

Epicenter- Point on Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
A seismometer, is an instrument used to detect and record earthquakes.
A seismogram is a record written by a seismograph.
Primary waves travel through any type of material
Secondary waves arrive second and cannot travel through liquids
Full transcript