Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

YODER | unit 1-ch.1/2/3/4 | US History

No description
by

Ryan Yoder

on 11 November 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of YODER | unit 1-ch.1/2/3/4 | US History

UNIT 1
U.S HISTORY
CH.1
THE EARLIEST AMERICANS
SECTION 1 | OBJECTIVE
Native American societies developed across Mesoamerica & South America
THE EARLIEST
AMERICANS
EARLY MIGRATION
TO THE AMERICAS
Settlers came during
last Ice Age

Climate turned intensely cold
Water froze into GLACIERS
Ocean levels dropped (300 feet)
Bering Land Bridge

Strip of land between Asia & present day Alaska
Paleo-Indians crossed b/t 38,000 & 10,000 BC
Hunter-Gathers
MIGRATION
MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE/ANIMALS FROM ONE REGION TO ANOTHER
NEW ENVIRONMENTS
About 8,000 BC the Earth's climate began to warm & bring and end to the Ice Age. Water levels began to rise & the land bridge was covered.
Creating conditions for large herds of buffalo and deer to thrive in. These different types of environments created different types of development.
Native American groups began to change. How did they begin to change?
WHAT IS THIS CALLED?
MAIZE
BEANS
SQUASH
FARMING
OLMEC & MAYA
AZTEC
INCA
OLMEC
1. Olmec developed the earliest civilizations around 1200 BC
2. Known for stone work & architecture
3. Built first pyramids in America
4. Ended around 400BC

MAYA
1. Grew crops & lived in small villages
2. Paved large plazas for public gatherings
3. Built canals to control water
4. In the 900's they began to collapse &
historians are still not sure why?
5. http://www.history.com/topics/maya/videos/the-mayans?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false
fierce warriors & superior military skill
migrated to Central Mexico in mid-1100 AD
Capital was Tenochtitlan on an island
CLIPS
http://www.history.com/topics/aztecs/videos/the-aztecs?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false


http://www.history.com/topics/aztecs/videos/ask-history-what-happened-to-the-aztecs?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false
EARLY MESOAMERICA
Began in the Andes Mountains in mid-1400's
Empire was home to 12 million people
Strong central govt with king as ruler
Official language was Quechua
No written language, records were kept on a system of knotted strings called quipu
Advanced highway system through mountains


LINK
http://www.history.com/shows/mankind-the-story-of-all-of-us/videos/mankind-the-story-of-all-of-us-rise-of-the-incas
SECTION 2 | OBJECTIVE
Many diverse Native American cultures developed across the different geographic regions of North America.
NATIVE AMERICAN
CULTURES
Earliest people in North America were hunter-gatherers. After 5000 BC some of these learned on to farm & settled in villages.
ANASAZI
lived in the 4 corner region of U.S.
grew corn, beans, squash
used irrigation to increase production
skilled basket makers & potters
PIT HOUSES
UNDERGROUND HOUSE
PUEBLOS
ABOVEGROUND HOUSES MADE OF HEAVY CLAY (ADOBE)
THRIVED FOR HUNDREDS OF YEARS
AFTER 1300AD BEGAN TO ABANDON THEIR VILLAGES
DROUGHT, DISEASE, OR RAIDS CAUSED THE MOVES
MOUND
BUILDERS
MISSISSIPPIAN
built hundreds of mounds for religious ceremonies
mounds had flat tops & temples built into mounds
EXAMPLE
Monks Mound (Illinois)
100 feet & covered 16 acres
MONKS MOUNT
COLLINSVILLE, ILLINOIS
NATIVE AMERICAN
CULTURE AREAS
#1
NORTH
NORTHWEST
ARCTIC
Lived in Alaska/Canada
Igloos, hide tents, & huts
Survived by fishing/hunting
Depended on dogs for hunting & pulling sleds

SUBARCTIC
Followed seasonal migration of deer
Lived in shelters of animal skin or log houses
Large amounts of animals, fish, wild plants
TOTEMS
ancestor or animal spirits on wooden poles
#2
WEST
SOUTHWEST
WEST
Between Pacific & Sierra Nevada mountain range
Gathered acorns, fished, hunted
Lived in families of about 50 to 300
SOUTHWEST
Pueblo groups
Adapted to dry conditions
Irrigated land and grew maize, squash, & beans
Life focused around rain & maize
Built homes out of adobe bricks
Navajo/Apache were nomadic & raided villages of the Pueblo's
#3
GREAT
PLAINS
Canada -> Texas
Mostly grassland
Buffalo, deer, elk thrived here
Many hunted with bows/spears
Skin used for shields, clothing, coverings, & teepees
#4
NORTHEAST
SOUTHEAST
SOUTHEAST
Cherokee, Creek, Seminole
Lived in farming villages
Used strings of bead (
wampum
) for money
NORTHEAST
Iroquois League
Used to help against invasion
Local tribe: Potawatomi
Ch.2
New Empires in the Americas
SECTION #1
Europeans explored the world, searching for new lands and new trade routes.
SECTION #2
SECTION #3
SECTION #4
Christopher Columbus's voyages led to new exchanges between Europe, Africa, and to the Americas.
Spain established a large empire in the Americas.
Other European nations challenged Spain in the Americas.
SECTION 1
Europeans Set Sail
VIKINGS
First Europeans to arrive in North America
Came from Scandinavia
Skilled sailors & invented new type of ship
they raided countries throughout Europe
sailed the British Isles, Mediterranean, & Black Sea
in 874 found new settlement in Iceland & then Greenland
LEIF ERIKSSON
sailing from Norway to Greenland when the strong winds blew him off course to the North American coastline
landed in present day Canada
as far south as Newfoundland
created settlement called Vinland
left after a few years due to Indian attacks & too far from Viking settlments
PRINCE
HENRY THE NAVIGATOR
Portugal became world leader in exploration (1400's)
never set out on a voyage himself
built observatory, founded school of navigation, taught new sailing methods, financed mapmakers/shipbuilders, & paid for explorations to Africa
Triangular Sail
Large Center
Rudder
REASONS TO
EXPLORE THE WORLD
1. Wanted Asian spices

2. Religion

3. Interest in Asian culture
bypass merchants (monopoly)
find sea route to buy directly
Christians wanted to convert
Marco Polo's book sparked interest
learn more about Asian culture
EXPLORES
BARTOLOMEU DIAS


VASCO DA GAMA
sailed along the coast of Africa in 1488
storm blew his ship around the southern tip
became known as Cape of Good Hope
sailed from Lisbon, Portugal & reached India a year later
Muslims spoke Portuguese that they learned from merchants
RESULTS
1. Negotiated for gold & ivory
2. Slave trade devastated African communities
Increased warfare
Slaves were sent to islands in the Atlantic
3. New trade routes
COLUMBUS
CHRISTOPHER
Where is Columbus from?
Genoa, Italy
Columbus was convinced that he could reach Asia by sailing west
Asked King Ferdinand & Queen Isabella of Spain
Took several years & he was to bring back items of value/claim land for Spain
Concerns?
NINA
PINTA
SANTA MARIA
AUGUST 3, 1492
ships carried about 90 sailors
year's worth of supplies
sailed past limits of their maps
went a month w/no sight of land
finally on October 12, 1492 signs of land
landed on island in the Bahamas
1ST VOYAGE
Though he found Asia. He called it San Salvador meaning "Holy Savior."
Explored, looked for gold, collected exotic plants, and animals to return to Spain
Sailed on to another island called
Hispaniola
He made three more journeys during his life time to the Americas. He returned to Spain in 1504 and died a few years later.
IMPACT
1. New interaction b/t Americans & Europeans
2. European conflict (Spain/Portugal)
Line of Demarcation
| imaginary line that divided the Atlantic Ocean. Spain could claim all land west of the line.
Believing this favored Spain they signed the
Treaty of Tordesillas
. (moved the line 800 miles west)
OTHER EXPLORERS
AMERIGO VESPUCCI


FERDINAND MAGELLAN
led Spanish fleet to South America
believed he found "new world" & named America
led Portuguese fleet down east coast of South America
sailed around southern tip of South America & sailed across the Pacific Ocean
One ship returned with only 18 original members
First ship to
circumnavigate
the globe
40,000 mile journey
http://www.biography.com/#!/people/ferdinand-magellan-9395202
COLUMBIAN
EXCHANGE
CONQUISTADORS
SPANISH
soldiers who led military expeditions in the Americas
AZTEC EMPIRE
Hernan Cortes
left Cuba in 1519 to find a wealthy land ruled by
Moctezuma II
Moctezuma ruled the Aztec Empire
Capital Tenochtitlan was built in the middle of Lake Texcoco (near Mexico City)
Wanted to convert Aztec to Christianity & good source of gold/silver
TENOCHTITLAN
LAKE TEXCOCO
Aztec's had thousands of soldiers & the Spanish had half that amount
Sailors, horses, guns, & help of allies
Cortes was believed to be a God & was welcomed
He took Moctezuma prisoner & took control of Tenochtitlan
Moctezuma was killed, small pox spread, and this brought an end to the Aztec Empire
Aztec Encounter |
http://www.history.com/videos/aztec-encounter
INCA EMPIRE
Pizarro | http://www.biography.com/people/francisco-pizarro-9442295
Inca territory stretched along the Pacific coast from Chile to Ecuador
Francisco Pizarro heard rumors of cities in the Andes
Had fewer than 400 men
Weapons no match for Inca's
Captured Inca capital Cuzco and killed their leaders
SPANISH SETTLEMENTS
called New Spain
wanted to control migration
at first most emigrants were men, but soon family settled
set up royal offices for leadership
Viceroyalty of Peru
: most of South America
Viceroyalty of New Spain
: Central America, Mexico, southern U.S.
3 Types of Establishments
1) Pueblos | trading posts & centers of government
2) Priests | missions to convert local Natives
3) Presidios | military base to protect towns/missions
other
EXPLORERS
JUAN PONCE DE LEON
landed on Puerto Rico in 1511
discovered present day Florida in 1512
Fountain of Youth
did not colonize
HERNANDO DE SOTO
explored Gulf Coast region of Florida
landed near Tampa Bay
went up through Georgia -> Carolinas
discovered the Mississippi River (1541)
VASQUEZ DE CORONADO
he wanted to find the Seven Cities of Gold
exploration when through New Mexico/Arizona
group of his men discovered the Grand Canyon
http://www.biography.com/people/francisco-v%C3%A1zquez-de-coronado-9258086
SPANISH
TREATMENT OF NATIVE AMERICANS
1503-1660
200 tons of Gold & 18,600 tons of Silver from Aztec/Inca Empires
Peru grew food to support Spain's empire
FORCED LABOR
3-4 million people w/80% Native American
PENINSULARES

- settlers who came from Spain & usually served in government
ENCOMIENDA SYSTEM
- gave settlers the right to tax local Native Americans or to make them work. In return they were supposed to protect & convert to Christianity.
most operated
PLANTATIONS
where they specialized in growing one crop
PROTESTANT
REFORMATION
Martin Luther
German priest who publicly critized the Roman Catholic Church (1517)
Church was too wealthy
Church abused their powers
95 Theses nailed to the door of a church in Wittenberg, Germany
PROTESTANT
| reformers who protested some of the Catholic practices
PRINTING PRESS
GUTENBERG | c.1450
Could now print copies using moveable type
and helped to spread the Reformation.
Protestant printed large amounts of Bibles as well as short essays explaining their ideas.
Allowing people to read/think the Bible on their own.
KING HENRY VIII
Founded the Church of England in 1534. He made himself the head of the church & soon challenged the authority of the Pope.
Spanish
ARMADA
King Phillip II hoped to drive out Protestants
through Spain's wealth
Queen Elizabeth I used her "sea dogs" against
the Spanish
They raided Spanish treasure ships
Sir Francis Drake
BACKGROUND
Spanish Armada
| Huge fleet of warships designed
to end English threat.
130 Ships & 27,000 Sailors
English defeat Spanish
Smaller/faster fleet
Spanish Problems
Inflation from Gold/Silver
Defeat by English
NORTHWEST
PASSAGE
JOHN CABOT
JACQUES CARTIER
HENRY HUDSON
[water route through North America that would allow ships to sail from Atlantic - Pacific]
Italian sailor who sailded in 1497 & 1498
Paid for own expedition
Asked king to grant him a royal charter to any lands found
Keep very few records
Sailed along the coast of Canada
Set stage for English claims for land
French sailor who made trips to Canada
Traveled to present day Montreal
Claimed land for France
English captain hired by the Dutch
Sailed to present day New York in 1609
Found the Hudson Bay
NEW WORLD
ENGLISH
SETTLEMENT
Sir Walter Raleigh received a charter & in 1584 he sent an expedition
Landed in present-day Virginia/North Carolina
Founded colony on Roanoke Island
Life was very difficult
Fought with Native Americans
Trouble growing food
Many returned to England the next year
John White resettled Roanoke (1587)
Virginia Dare (first English colonist born in North America)
White returned after a few months to get supplies, but didn't return for 3 years
When he came back the island was deserted & all he found was something carved in a post.
Known as the "Lost Colony"
FRENCH
SETTLEMENT
Most of their settlements were based off of Cartier & Champlain's explorations.
Champlain followed the St. Lawrence River & the Great Lakes
Set up the colony of Quebec (1608) as a trading post
Marquette and LaSalle explored the Mississippi River down to the gulf.
LaSalle named the region for King Louis XIV & named it Louisiana
DUTCH
SETTLEMENT
Merchant ships who came to the new world in search of trade
Founded New Netherland & formed the Dutch West Indian Company (1624)
Peter Minuit | bought Manhattan Island from local Native Americans for $24
Ch.3
THE ENGLISH COLONIES
(pg.72)
SECTION 1
SECTION 2
SECTION 3
SECTION 4
section 1
THE SOUTHERN COLONIES
What state is Jamestown located in?
It all started with a hundred famished, starving people
so desperate for food they ate
their milk cows, slaughtered their plough horses,
killed their dogs.
When they ran out they hunted birds/squirrels,
trapped rats/mice,
and boiled the leather of their shoes to chew.
When that was gone the turned to each other to wait
for the next person to die.
JAMESTOWN
Virginia
Start....
in 1605 English merchants asked King James I for the right to establish a new settlement
it was granted in 1606 & the settlement was to be called
VIRGINIA
Charter officially cited the
"propagation of Christian religion"
investors formed a joint-stock company called the London Company
on April 26, 1607 the first 105 colonists arrived in America
Struggles...
lack of preparation
no farming/carpentry skills
surrounded by marsh
2/3 of colonists were dead by winter
Despite a difficult beginning,
the southern colonies soon began
to flourish.
JOHN SMITH
New Leadership
Smith took control in 1608 & began to change order
Communalism :
every man could take from the general storehouse what he needed & gave back what he could
Smith
saved Jamestown by trading with Indians & enforcing compulsory work program
1 Thessalonians 3:10
VIRGINIA
MARYLAND
CAROLINAS
GEORGIA
People lived on scattered farms rather than towns
TOBACCO FARMS
John Rolfe brought over the first tobacco seed
He married Pocahontas in 1614
Peace b/t Powhatan & colonist
She died 3 years later in England
Large tobacco farms were called
plantations
HEADRIGHT SYSTEM
Started under London Company
Colonists who paid their own way to Virginia:
Received 50 acres of land
Could earn additional 50 acres for every person they brought from England
INDENTURED SERVANTS
signed a contract to work 4-7 years
for those who paid for their journey to America
Baptism of Pocahontas
1614 | U.S. Capitial Building (Rotunda)
EXPANSION OF SLAVERY
the first African slaves were brought in
1619
brought by the Dutch
servants, successful farmers, slaves
slaves went down > slave labor
BACON'S
REBELLION
BACON'S REBELLION
JAMESTOWN | 1676
As Jamestown expanded officials:
asked for more taxes
colony not ready for Native American attacks
Nathaniel Bacon
attacked friendly Indians in 1676
did not agree trading w/Native Americans
take Native American land
Governor tried to stop Bacon
attacked & burned Jamestown
Bacon's Rebellion
George Calvert | Lord Baltimore
asked King Charles I for charter to establish colony for
Catholics
Cecilius Calvert granted colony in 1632
named colony after England's queen Henrietta Maria
located north of Chesapeake Bay
refuge for Catholics
proprietary colony (owners controlled govt)
1634 200 colonist came to Maryland
Toleration Act of 1649
Conflicts b/t Protestants & Catholics
Bill made it a crime to restrict the religious rights of Christians
Began as a single colony in 1663
Settlements began to grow apart & difficult to govern
Separated into North/South Carolina in 1712
North Carolina
Farmers moved south from Virginia
South Carolina
Colonist from Europe
Paid their way received large land grants
By 1730 20,000 slaves - 10,000 settlers
Granted
James Oglethorpe
charter in 1732
shield British colonies from Spanish
colony for
English debtors
to make a new start
wanted small farms & not large plantations
outlawed slavery & large land grants
made British colony in 1752
large rice plantations along the coast
SAVANNAH, GA

1733 | 120 colonists
English colonist traveled to
New England to gain
religious freedom.
THE
NEW ENGLAND
COLONIES
The
Protestant Reformation
was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe.
PURITANS
They believed in the principle and also the doctrines of the Church. However they insisted on purifying the national church from some of its ceremonies and methods for which they opposed, but kept membership.
SEPARATISTS
Agreed with the religious teachings of the Church, but did not approve of its forms (Catholic Church). They wanted to separate from it and set up their own independent congregations.
PILGRIMS
left England in early 1600's to the Netherlands
IMMIGRANTS
: people who have left the country of their birth to live in another country
3 reasons to leave the country
1) language/customs were not English
2) children would marry into Dutch families
3) build community on English soil
Speedwell was unseaworthy
on September 16, 1620 the
Mayflower
left England
Mayflower Breakdown Video
http://www.history.com/topics/mayflower/videos#deconstructing-history-mayflower
MAYFLOWER
compact
after 2 months they landed in November
the 1st written charter
before they got off the ship they signed the Mayflower Compact (govern/preserve unity)
November 21, 1620 the 41 male passengers signed the document
WINTER CONDITIONS

over half of the colonist died the first winter
including Gov. Carver &
William Bradford
was chosen to fill the position
he was governor for the next 36 years
[
NATIVE AMERICANS
]
Governor Carver
made a peace treaty with the Massasoit tribe in 1621
Treaty lasted for over 50 years
EX: Hostile Indian tribe sent Gov. Bradford a declaration of war in a bundle of arrows tied round with rattlesnake-skin. What did he do?
Samoset first greeted the Pilgrims & spoke broken English
Squanto
later came & he spoke English well
Showed them were to hunt, fish, and grow crops
The Pilgrims invited around 90 local Wampanoag tribe to celebrate their harvest
THANKSGIVING
| http://www.history.com/topics/thanksgiving/history-of-thanksgiving/videos/bet-you-didnt-know-thanksgiving?m=528e394da93ae&s=undefined&f=1&free=false
Feast lasted 3 days
Food = shellfish, lobsters, turkey, corn bread, berries, deer
PILGRIM
COMMUNITY
Struggles:
1. Farm ground was poor in the region
2. Poor fishing/hunting conditions
3. Unable to trap fur to generate income
Everyday:
1. Had rights to farm their own land
2. Taught children to read/write
3. Families worked together to survive
4. Women: cooked, spun/wove wool, sewed, soap,
butter, water, dried fruit, cared for livestock
5. Women could sign contracts, sue, widows own property
6. Men: repairing tools, in fields, wood, shelters
MASSACHUSETTS BAY
COLONY
King Charles I
during 1620's economy suffered
Charles raised taxes
refused to allow Puritans to criticize church
Great Migration (1629-1640)
economic, political, religious
40,000 moved from England

Massachusetts Bay Colony
Left in 1630 with 11 ships
John Winthrop
First resident & governor
Originally landed in Salem, then Charlestown, and finally at Tri-Mountain (called what today?)
"City upon a hill"
A beacon of faith shining for the world to see
Successful:
little resistance from Indians
good health climate (water & little sickness)
trading
William Blackstone
English hermit on Tri-Mountain
BOSTON
Plymouth Bay Colony | 1620
THE
PILGRIMS' LEGACY OF
ECONOMIC LIBERTY
originally they insisted on owning homes, gardens, and land
last minute change required them to share profits
land & labor would now remain in common storehouse for 7 years
communal arrangement as well as their labor
Jamestown Colony Example
unless private property and labor were respected....there would be little incentive to work
KEYS TO ECONOMIC
FREEDOM
Governor Bradford on why
socialism
did not work:
1.
Private property
must hold together a free & productive economy (lazy)
2. Private
profit
is key ingredient to free economy (excuses)
3.
Welfare
must be
voluntary

(private charity) rather than forced (govt)
4. Free economy is built on the respect & dignity of
individual differences

5. Free market is built on
personal incentive
&
self interest
in order to
overcome one's naturally corrupt nature
6. Economy is based on
voluntary choice
7. "rest on God's providence...the need to
pray
that God would give them
their daily bread"
common ownership
of land/labor
Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, pp.120-121
NEW ENGLAND
government
had to obey British laws
charter provided more independence =
Cambridge Agreement
General Court
acted as both a legislative & court system (
bicameral
)
based their government on the biblical model of a covenant relationship
Massachusetts Bay town covenant
We covenant with the Lord and with one another and do bind ourselves in the presence of God, to walk together in all his ways, accordingly as he is pleased to reveal himself to us in his Blessed word of truth. And do more explicitly, in the name and fear of God, profess and protest to walk as followeth through the power and goodness of the Lord Jesus Christ.
-Covenant of the Town of Salem
Samuel Hall | 1798
EXAMPLES
Massachusetts Body of Liberty (
1641
)
Rev. Nathaniel Ward
Basic Bill of Rights (life, liberty, private property)
Fundamental Order of Connecticut (
1638
)
Thomas Hooker
known as "America's first constitution"
allowed non-church members to vote (male)
outlined powers of general court
"Old Deluder Satan Act" (
1647
)
Puritans believed Satan used illiteracy as a weapon against the biblical truth
When township reached 100 families, law required its residents to establish a grammar school
RHODE ISLAND

AND THE PROVIDENCE PLANTATION
Rev. Roger Williams (1636)
didn't agree with the leadership of Massachusetts
Anabaptist leaning (baptism)
opposed existence of state church
called for the church to split
criticized court for taking Indian land
forced to leave
Rhode Island
took followers south to "Providence"
believed in religious tolerance

**first to declare independence from Britain**
"God's merciful providence
to me in my distress"
Anne
HUTCHINSON
born in England
began to question local ministers
believed people's relationship with God did not need guidance from ministers
Gov. Winthrop & Puritan leaders were alarmed
women should not be religious leaders
put on trial & forced to leave Mass. Colony
Founded Portsmouth later joining Rhode Island
SALEM

WITCH TRIALS
http://www.history.com/topics/salem-witch-trials/videos#salem-witch-trials
Salem Video

Trials for a couple of months in 1692
Special court to judge witchcraft cases
Before they ended 19 were put to death
Why did they stop?
Trial stopped when 3 ministers went to the governor & shared what the Bible said about judicial review. They called in the judge and the trials stopped. The judge went before the church and repented for his sins. At the same time in Europe some 500,000 people were put to death and it lasted over 2 years!
why the trials stopped?
new england
ECONOMY
[CT, MA, NH, RI]
MERCHANTS
local, states, Europe
furs, pickled beef, pork
FISHING
one of leading industries
exported dried fish
hunted whales (harpoons/spears)
SHIPBUILDING
forests, trade, fishing
SKILLED CRAFTSPEOPLE

People from many nations settled in the middle colonies.
the
MIDDLE COLONIES
NEW YORK & NEW JERSEY
NEW YORK
founded by the Dutch in 1617
used as a fur trading post with the Iroquois
New Amsterdam, New Netherland center of trade
leader was Peter Stuyvesant 1647-1664
English captured the colony w/o firing a single shot
changed name to New York City, New York
NEW JERSEY
named after the Channel Island of Jersey
Duke of York gave land to Sir Carteret & Lord Berkeley
occupied land between Hudson & Delaware River
very diverse population
PENNSYLVANIA
King of England owed him a lot of money to Penn's father
Upon his death it was passed on to his son William
He negotiated a land exchange with the King in America
Named the settlement Pennsylvania after his father
Penn was in search of religious freedom (not baptist)
Quaker
spin-off of Puritan sect
founded by George Fox (17th century) in England
He was sentenced to jail for his beliefs
He told the judge that he should tremble in fear of God, for engaging in persecution
"You folk are the tremblers, you are the
QUAKERS"

settled in New Jersey
offered religious freedoms, but put restrictions on Jews & Catholics
Pennsylvania was to be "Holy Experiment"
emigrants: a penny an acre bought 200 acres farm & two hundred pounds bought a five-thousand acre estate with a town lot in Philadelphia
Colony infused with people of biblical faith
Quakers
essentially believed mankind was good
few laws = crime wave (implemented Puritan law)
William Penn
lived till the age of 75
final proposal = A union of all the American colonies, governed by a colonial congress.
The English colonies continued to grow
despite many challenges.

English Trade Laws
Governments
COLONIAL
EACH COLONY HAD THEIR OWN
GOVERNOR
& WERE GIVEN POWER BY THEIR
CHARTER
.
GOVERNORS/LEGISLATURES
1.
CHARTER
| governor & council members assigned by king/queen
2.
PROPRIETORS
| chose all the officials (CT/GA)

Colonial Assembly
: passed laws that had to be approved by advisory council & governors
EXAMPLE
VIRGINIA HOUSE OF BURGESSES
first legislative assembly in America
became bicameral legislature elected by the people
became cornerstone of American government & established
1) American tradition would be self-government
2) based on Biblical world view
VOTING: landowning males & at least 17 years old
KING JAMES II
[1685]
BELIEVED:
take more control of government
colonies too independent
united northern colonies (new england)
ENGLISH
BILL OF RIGHTS
Parliament passed in 1689 to reduce the powers of the English monarch. As time went on colonists valued their own right to vote/elect.
MERCANTILISM
system of creating & maintaining wealth through carefully controlled trade
TRIANGULAR TRADE
[manufactured goods]
[sugar]
[beef,flour]
[slaves]
[rum,iron]
[sugar, molasses]
MIDDLE PASSAGE
stage of the triangular trade in which millions of people from Africa were shipped to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade.
SECTION 5
conflict in the colonies
Great Britain won the French & Indian War
and it still had to be paid for. There was still a need for a standing army, so Parliament taxed the colonists.
Many of the colonists believed that Great Britain had no right to tax the colonists without
popular consent
.
In 1764,
Samuel Adams
and James Otis ideas were summed up in the following slogan
"No Taxation without Representation"
ROAD TO REVOLUTION
the
1764 | THE SUGAR ACT
set duties on molasses & sugar imported
first attempt to raise money in the colonies
REACTION

Samuel Adams founded the Committees of Correspondence to improve communication
1765 | THE STAMP ACT

taxes on newspapers, licenses, & colonial paper products
first attempt to raise money by taxing directly
Sons of Liberty formed (Samuel Adams)
Patrick Henry
stated it violated their rights & denied the accused a trial by jury
Stamp Act Congress
met in New York (9/13) stating that the Stamp Act was a violation of their rights/liberties
1767 | TOWNSHEND ACTS
duties on glass, lead, paint, paper, tea
British officials used writs of assistance (search for goods)
responded with boycotting
the ship
Liberty
was seized by tax collector in 1768
Sons of Liberty attacked officer
by October 1768 British troops arrived in Boston
1770 | BOSTON MASSACRE
March 5, 1770
tension rose on King Street
an angry crowd gathered
"Come on you rascals...Fire if you dare!"
3 men were killed (Crispus Attucks)
Soldier Trial
argued troops acted in self-defense
found not guilty
Josiah Quincy & John Adams
1773 | BOSTON TEA PARTY
Parliament repealed almost all of Townshend Act except tax on
TEA
Tea Act of 1773 allowed East Indian Company to sell directly to colonist
Colonists wanted to the 3 ships to leave, but were told to stay
on December 16, 1773 they were in the harbor
Sons of Liberty dressed up as Indians & dumped 340 chests into Boston Harbor
1774 | INTOLERABLE ACTS
1) Boston Harbor closed until tea was paid for
2) Massachusetts charter canceled
3) Those accused of crimes sent to Britain
4) Quartering Act
5) Quebec Act gave land to colony of Quebec
6) New governor of Massasschusetts
CHAPTER
4
AMERICAN REVOLUTION
BACKGROUND
Taxes & harsh new laws led some of the Colonist to protest against the British. In some places, the protests turned violent. The British government refused to listen, ignoring the colonists' demands for more rights. Thus setting the stage for the war.
SECTION 1
OBJECTIVES
Tensions between the colonies & Great Britain led to armed conflict in 1775.
1ST
CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
gathering of colonial leaders who were deeply troubled about the relationship b/t Britain & the American colonies
CARPENTERS' HALL
PHILADELPHIA | 1774
General Info
September 5th - October 26th, 1774
12/13 colonies present (not there?)
President Payton Randolph (unanimously)
Locked in debates
Patrick Henry = violence was unavoidable
Delegates from PA & NY = seek peace
PATRICK HENRY
to encourage his fellow Virginians to support the
Patriots
he

gave one of his most famous speeches
"Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased by the chains of slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death."
colonists who fought against the British
The Continental Congress planned to meet again a year later in 1775, but the situation changed for the worse.
RIDE OF
PAUL REVERE
COMPROMISE
cont. boycott
colonial militias prepare for war
drafted Declaration of Rights to present to King George III
statement of principles common to all of the colonies
Sons of Liberty
http://www.history.com/videos/sons-of-liberty
British military leaders had growing concerns
Governor Gage was going to seize stockpile in Concord
20 MILES
Sent "secret" expedition as way of Lexington
Samuel Adams & John Hancock
London papers boasted "the rebels would soon be on exhibition in the city"
Paul Revere
the night of April 18, 1775
Paul Revere, William Dawes, Samuel Prescott = Rode
Robert Newman = Steeple of Old North Church
Battle of Lexington & Concord
http://www.history.com/topics/battles-of-lexington-and-concord/videos#first-revolutionary-battle-at-lexington--concord
OLD NORTH CHURCH
BOSTON, MA
1=LAND
2=SEA
Between 40-50 people were involved in the communication system that night
Church bells rang out to call the local militia
Minutemen: local militia who were ready to fight in a minute's notice
BOSTON
1)
Revere
finds British heading towards water
2) Goes to
Newman's
house...to the church
Climbs 14 stories (154) to the top of the church
The two lanterns are lit before
Revere
is across the river (can be seen in Charlestown)
"
Newman
Window"
3) Meanwhile
Revere
heads to the Charles River
Legend: Spurs & Paddles
He is rowed across the river
HMS Somerset

THE RIDE
Paul
Revere
& William Dawes begin
John Larkin provided him with "Brown Beauty"
Takes off to warn Middlesex County
Revere
riding along Lexington Rd.
Two officers were waiting
Outran British to Medford
TO LEXINGTON (midnight)
heads to Rev. Jonas Clark's house
warn Adams & Hancock
"Noise? You will hear enough noise before long. The regulars are coming."
stayed for an hour
TO CONCORD
meets Dr. Prescott on the road
outnumbered by British regulars on the road to Concord
TROUBLE
Paul Revere
= captured by British soldiers
William Dawes
= turned around, fell off horse, lost his horse, & walked back to Lexington
Dr. Prescott
= made it through soldiers & warned Concord
BATTLE OF

LEXINGTON
the British arrive in Lexington on the morning of April 19th
70 armed
minutemen
were waiting
Patriot Captain John Parker yelled,
"The first man who offers to run shall be shot down. Stand your ground! Don't fire unless fired upon. But if they want to have a war let it begin here!"
While the British Captain Pitcairn shouted,
"Ye villains,ye rebels, disperse, disperse" and they did not move. Then it is said he yelled, "FIRE!"
this became known as the "shot heard round the world" & we don't know what side fired it
Battle of Lexington
8 patriots died, 10 wounded
1 British soldier wounded
battle of
CONCORD
British left Lexington w/the mission to find hidden military supplies & eat breakfast (7:30am)
found the town cannon & some supplies (where did they hide them?)
Militia of nearly 400 men were on a hillside outside of town
they saw smoke in town and moved toward town, where they met the British at the Concord Bridge
the British retreated to town & waited for reinforcements
by noon the British retreated (run) back to Lexington
when they got back to Lexington they:
"Dropped panting on the ground, their tongues hanging out like those of tired dogs."
The British retreat on the road back to Boston lined with colonial marksmen.
Shot from behind trees, in trees, behind fences
British were outraged
Left to the tune of "Yankee Doodle" but not playing when they came back to Boston

British
=
73 killed, 174 wounded, 26 missing
Patriots
=
49 killed, 39 wounded, 9 missing
THE RETREAT
The Battle of Concord signals
the beginning of
the American Revolution.
SECOND
CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
Fort Ticonderoga
ETHAN ALLEN
CAPITAL | NATIONAL STATUARY HALL
May 10, 1775
John Hancock presided over the Congress
Recognized King George III as the "rightful sovereign" of the colonies
Not all states were unified (no Georgia)
CONTINENTAL ARMY
George Washington name commander-in-chief of army around Boston
Washington prepared for WAR & Congress prepared for PEACE
OLIVE BRANCH PETITION
July 5, 1775
King George III refused to receive the petition
Final attempt at peace
by August 23rd the King declared the colonies in a state of rebellion
Ethan Allen (VT) & Benedict Arnold (MA)
Green Mountain Boys
both ordered to capture Fort Ticonderoga from British (took from French when?)
THE ATTACK
early on the morning of May 10th
crossed Lake George, marched to fort, sentry was asleep and gate was open
NO SHOTS WERE FIRED
400 Patriots vs. 42 British
story of surrender
why important?
1. controlled invasion route from Canada
2. can defeat British
3. first in series of events to harden Arnold
4. controlled the waterways
5. captured large amount of British stockpile
weapons will be used by Henry Knox later in the seize of Boston
battle of
BUNKER HILL
after Battle of Lexington/Concord the British retreated back to?
Gen. Washington received word of British movement to Bunker Hill
during the night trenches were dug and fortifications were set up on Breeds Hill
June 17, 1775
British awaken to see Colonial forces on Breeds Hill
General Howe took aggressive action w/3,000 soldiers & attacked near Moulton's Hill
What would have been the best option against the Colonial forces?
seal off Charlestown at the neck & with a naval blockade would have starved out the Colonial forces
British begin uphill march around 3,000 soldiers
General William Prescott told his men
"Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes"
British launched two uphill assaults against the entrenched colonists.
Both assaults were repulsed and resulted in very heavy losses for the British.
A third charge found the Americans running low on powder and unable to resist the fixed bayonets of the British.
the Colonial forces finally had to retreat out the neck of Charlestown
British won the battle
British = 1,051
Colonial = 441
Why was it really a victory for the colonist?
battle of
QUEBEC
British planning to attack NY
1,000 soldiers
BENEDICT ARNOLD
6 weeks
September 1775
terrible conditions
GEN. RICHARD
MONTGOMERY
December 31, 1775 (2am) Why?
Arnold & Montgomery attempted to "storm" (middle of blizzard)
"the strongest fortified city of America"
British received word of attack from deserter
Montgomery fell mortally wounded in the initial assault
later Arnold had a bone in his leg broken by a musket ball
The American attack failed utterly; 100 were killed and about 300 captured
HENRY KNOX
FORT TICONDEROGA
WINTER 1775-76
Washington needed more artillery/power
sent Gen. Knox to Fort Ticonderoga
MISSION
60 British Cannons/60 tons
covered over 300 miles
pulled by oxen sled
to Dorchester Heights outside of Boston
dorchester
HEIGHTS
March 4, 1776
under the cover of constant bombing Gen. Thomas
laid down straw to muffle the sound of wagon wheels
they dug trenches and positioned their cannons from Dorchester Heights
Gen. Howe received word in the morning and by March 7th the British retreated to Canada
1776
watch
1:53:00 - 2:04:39 [ratifying D/I]
2:26:15 - 2:44:00 [voting/signing]
SECTION 3
------the struggle for liberty------
Continental Army
raise troops
230,000 in Continental Army
145,000 in local militias
Typical Soldier
around 16 years old
little property
Conditions
little/no pay
harsh environment
high death rate
African Americans???
not recruited at the beginning
British promised freedom if they fought for them
Cont. Army changed thinking
Women/Children
ran businesses and farms
cared for soldiers on battlefield
MOLLY PITCHER
BATTLE OF MONMOUTH
EXAMPLES
Molly Ludwig Hayes (Molly Pitcher)
Battle of Monmouth (1778)
Husband loaded the cannon & he got shot
Took over, cannon shot b/t legs, finish battle

Deborah Simon
first woman to dress as a man & fight in the war
"Robert Shurtliff" was her enlisted name
Got injured and treated herself
Honorable discharge by Gen. Knox and Paul Revere wrote letter to get pension

Margaret Cochran Corbin
fought alongside her husband at Fort Washington
Her husband/his partner killed
Aim was so good that the British noticed
Found in critical condition (shot 4 times, jaw, almost lost left arm)
Her cannon was the last to stop firing
First female to receive a pension

BRITISH
COLONIAL
STRENGTHS
well trained/equipped
large, powerful Navy

WEAKNESSES
cross Atlantic Ocean
used mercenaries as soldiers

STRENGTHS
believed in what they were fighting for
help from French

WEAKNESSES
poorly equipped/trained soldiers
small navy
NEW YORK
British wanted to gain control of New York and the Hudson River. Hoped to cut off the New England colonies with the Southern colonies.
GEN. WASHINGTON (20,000 soldiers)
prepared for the return of the British forces
Howe brothers
built Fort Washington and Fort Lee
sunken vessels
cross fire from cannons
British Generals (30,000 soldiers)
Gen. William Howe (replaced Gage)
Adm. Richard Howe
Gen. Henry Clinton
Gen. Charles Cornwallis
battle of
LONG ISLAND

BRITISH

CONT. ARMY
August 27,1776
Gen. Howe wanted to get a cannon planted on Brooklyn Heights (like Boston)
Gen. Putnam (CA) had 9,000 men at the Heights
sent about 5,000 soldiers to met the 20,000 Redcoats
they were easily defeated and pinned against the East River
Americans - 1,400 casualties
British - 400 casualties
BROOKLYN

HEIGHTS
WASHINGTON'S

FORCES
British Mistake
no fighting for 2 days (raining/cold)
Aug. 29 | Gen. Washington planned a retreat to Manhatthan across the East River
American army was ferried across the river in the middle of the night (9,000 troops)
Calm waters and a thick fog allowed them to cross safely
Fog = Brooklyn |
No Fog = Manhattan
The next morning Gen. Howe pointed and said, "nest the rebels," as he called it; but it was empty when they arrived
LONG ISLAND RETREAT
JAMES ARMISTEAD
BENEDICT ARNOLD'S & LORD CORNWALLIS CAMP
oliver cromwell
prince whipple
PETER SALEM
14 commendations
BATTLE OF LEXINGTON
PRINCE ESTABROOK
PETER GROSVENOR
PRINCE ESTABROOK
Washington was now forced to abandon New York & retreat up the east side of the river. A deserter gave the plans of Fort Washington to the British. Over 3,000 prisoners were taken & Fort Lee was abandoned as well.
NATHAN
HALE
September 11, 1776
Washington need in tell on British positioning & needed a spy
Col. Knowlton has secret meeting of Army Rangers
"I am willing to be shot in battle, but not to be hung like a dog."
A young man said, "I will undertake the mission."
captain
graduated from Yale at 18 years old
teacher in Connecticut
began teaching women from 5-7am
believed they should break away from Britain
told he would be terrible spy...he is to honest
told there was no honor in the mission
"There is honor in any mission necessary for the cause of freedom."
crosses enemy lines and maps out the British
gets captured and sentence is to hang
"I only regret that I only have one life to give for my country."
broke down bridges
destroyed provisions
delayed Cornwallis 3 weeks
Dec. 8th he crosses the Delaware into PA & took every boat for nearly 100 miles
RETREAT
battle of
TRENTON
CROSSING THE DELAWARE RIVER
December 25, 1776
PASSWORD: Victory or Death!
Gen. Knox organized the crossing
2500 men in the middle of a snow storm with hurricane force winds at night
Artillery, horses, & everything was covered w/ice
Took the entire night to cross (3 hours behind)
0 men lost
MARCH TO TRENTON
marched 9 miles to Trenton
up and down hills & crossed to creeks
roads were sheets of ice & men could not stop marching
wind/snow hid the men from the Hessians view
HESSIANS
had been on guard for the past 8 days
rested when they saw the snow storm
many were still asleep when they were attacked the next morning
battle was won in about 90 minutes
RESULTS
100 dead - 900 captured Hessians
Washington's command solidified
increased morale and enlistments
battle of
PRINCETON
Gen. Cornwallis rushed to stop Washington
Cornwallis believed he had trapped Washington
" they will bag the old fox in the morning"
Washington keeps the fires burning and the "sly fox" crept around the back of the British
Battle of Princeton
Jan. 3, 1777
American forces driven back, but Washington called his troops to follow
30 yards from British fully exposed, hidden by the smoke, came out unhurt, and not a bullet touched him
inspired his men to victory & sent the British running
campaigns of
1777
handout
EUROPEAN HELP
MARQUIS de LAFAYETTE
believes in the American cause
arrives in 1777 (20 years old)
brings own ship over & serves without pay
Gen. Washington's most trusted friend/saw him as role model
Battle of Brandywine
showed courage & was wounded
wrote home to encourage help
gave over $200,000 of his own money
became major general
after the Second Battle of Saratoga it secured the aid of England's old and powerful enemy
FRANCE
Baron de Kalb
name sound familiar?
came with Lafayette
served at Valley Forge
Battle of Camden
shot 3 times & stabbed w/the bayonet
"I thank you sir for your generous sympathy, but I die the death I always prayed for: the death of a soldier fighting for the rights of man."
GEN. VON STEUBEN
officer from Prussia
came beginning of 1778
turned American troops into fighting force during the winter at Valley Forge
wrote drill manuals & reorganized basic hygiene
named Inspector General of the Army
VALLEY FORGE
After defeats at Brandywine, Germantown and the British occupying Philadelphia...General Washington falls back to


on December 17, 1777.
Fighting as suspended during the winter month & Gen. Washington brought 12,000 men into camp 25 miles outside of Philadelphia.
NO
SHELTER, FOOD, CLOTHING, SHOES, MONEY
http://www.history.com/topics/american-revolution/american-revolution-history/videos/surviving-valley-forge
VALLEY FORGE
battle of
MONMOUTH
Gen. Howe is replaced by Gen. Clinton
they leave Philadelphia & return to NYC
Washington followed the British & attacked on June 28, 1778
Placed Gen. Lafayette in charge but Gen. Lee took over command
Lee ordered a retreat & Washington was angered over his actions
Lee was revealed of his duties & later is removed from the military
BATTLE OF MONMOUTH
Washington takes charge and along with Stuben they organize the defense lines
British cannot break their lines
Both sides claim victory, but the British lost 1200 men compared to 300 Americans
this is the last battle fought in the northern theater
WAR IN THE
WEST
During the summer and autumn horrible Indian massacres began by the Iroquois Indians. They were led by the British attack west of the Appalachian Mts.
Capt. George Rodgers Clark
won the Battle of Sackville (Vincennes) to help bring Illinois & Indiana under Patriot control.
war in the
SOUTH
The war was not going according to plan in the Northern Colonies, so Gen. Clinton switched the British focus on the Southern Colonies. They planned to free/enlist slaves & gain southern support. It worked.....for a while.
Brutal Fighting
Patriots v. Loyalists
Change of British tactics
Destroyed crops, animals, property
Officer Banastre Tarleton
took no prisoners & killed soldiers who tried
1778
1780

battle of camden
Gen. Gates
lead poor attack
only had half as many men as planned for
tired, hungry, overheated
4000 troops captured - 700 escaped
removed from command
Gen. Greene
takes over Gen. Gates position & arrived to reorganize the army
"I have never witnessed such scenes"
Humiliating loss for the Cont. Army
"SWAMP FOX"
francis marion

Southern Patriots switched to hit and run attacks (guerrilla warfare)
According to legend a British officer who was so inspired by the American resourcefulness & dedication to the cause he switched sides.
Learned new type of warfare from French & Indian War
Escaped capture in Charleston by jumping out of a second story window
As they retreated the British Gen. Tarleton tried to capture Francis Marion. For 7 hours and 26 miles he cased Marion
"As for this old fox, the devil himself could not catch him.
major
JOHN ANDRE
was captured in 1776 & was released in prisoner exchange
served under Gen. Grey at Brandywine, Germantown, Paoli, Philadelphia occupation, Monmouth (journal gives accounts)
He looted Ben Franklin's home of books, instruments, and a portrait of Franklin
Appointed Major General
Deal w/Benedict Arnold
Gen. Arnold agreed to surrender West Point to the English for a fee. They negotiated for months & settled on 20,000 pounds ($14 million).
On the night of Sept.21, 1780 Gen. Arnold agrees to hand over the fort. Major Andre comes on enemy lines not dressed in uniform
Captured
He is captured on behind enemy lines & with papers of the plans in his boots
Arnold narrowly escapes & Andre is hung to death
battle of
YORKTOWN
James Armistead gathered enough information from British Gen. Arnold & Cornwallis to prevent the British from sending in 10,000 reinforcements to Yorktown.
Along with the aid of the French blockade in the water and French Gen. Rochambeau they cut off all escape routes for the British.
General Cornwallis is chasing General Lafayette across the south into Virginia. Cornwallis declares, "The boy cannot escape me." But "that boy" turned his larger army back on Cornwallis.
BRITISH HOLD OUT FOR 3 WEEKS & SURRENDERED ON OCT.19,1781.
treaty of
PARIS
1783
BEGAN
APRIL 19, 1775
&
ENDED
APRIL 19, 1783
OLMEC
COLOSSAL HEAD 1
MAYAN
EL CASTILLO, MEXICO
Between 1609-1614 more settlers arrived
Real change came in 1614 |
Sir Thomas Dale
Realized it wasn't a lack of food killing the settlers, but the wrong economic system
Workers were stagnate & unmotivated
Men were lazy because they had no investment in the land
Private Property
was granted: 3 acres to old timers & less to new settlers. In return they had to provide 2 barrels of corn for the store house.
Robert
Newman
Committee of Correspondence

AMERICA'S FIRST MAJOR VICTORY
IN THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
COMMON SENSE

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
page 163 (Old History)


story of D/I
short answer
wife fell overboard &
died in the harbor
Full transcript