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Group Project: Modern Issues in Africa

Worth 100 points, Arab Spring Update
by

Austin Drill

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of Group Project: Modern Issues in Africa

Tunisia's Government Timeline Libya's Transitional Governments Benghazi, Libya terrorist attack (9/11/12) How it started... 1600s - Tunisia becomes part of the Turkish Ottoman empire, but has a high degree of autonomy. 1956 20 March - Tunisia becomes independent with Habib Bourguiba as president. 1957 - The monarchy is abolished and Tunisia becomes a republic. 1981 - First multi-party parliamentary elections since independence. President Bourguiba's party wins by a landslide. President Bourguiba was deposed by Prime Minister Ben Ali in 1987 1987 - Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali has President Bourguiba declared mentally unfit to rule and takes power himself. 1989 - Ben Ali wins presidential elections. He goes on to be re-elected four more times, the last time in 2009. Ben Ali 1999 - First multi-party presidential elections; Ben Ali wins a third term. 2002 May - President Ben Ali wins a referendum on constitutional changes, paving the way for his fourth term. 2004 October - President Ben Ali wins a fourth term with 94% of the vote. 2006 December - The Progressive Democratic Party (PDP), the main opposition party, elects a woman as leader - a first for Tunisia. She is May El Jeribi. 2009 October - President Ben Ali wins a fifth term in office. 2010 December - Protests break out over unemployment and political restrictions, and spread nationwide.
2011 January - President Ben Ali goes into exile amid continuing protests. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali ruled for more than 20 years Tunisians overthrew the Ben Ali regime in the first popular revolution of the Arab Spring 2011 February - Prime Minister Ghannouchi resigns, responding to demands by demonstrators calling for a clean break with the past. 2011 June - Ex-president Ben Ali is tried in absentia for theft. He is sentenced to 35 years in prison. 2011 October - Parliamentary elections. Ennahda Islamist party wins, but falls short of an outright majority.
November - National assembly which will draft a new constitution meets for first time.
December - Human rights activist Moncef Marzouki is elected president by the constituent assembly, Ennahda Hamadi Jebali is sworn in as prime minister. Ennahda Hamadi Jebali sworn in as prime minister Moncef Marzouki becomes president We request president Mohammed Magariaf's full support Around 10 pm Building C is set alight inside and out and Ambassador Stevens goes missing in the smoke and flames The assault began at 9:40 pm in Benghazi (3:40 on our East Coast) Ambassador Stevens was found dead at 5:15am Everyone is evacuated by 10:19pm the following day The American Flag was taken off the embassy, ripped to shreds, and replaced with a black Salafist flag In other North African Nations Mali Coup A coup d'état is a sudden decisive exercise of force in politics; especially : the violent overthrow or alteration of an existing government by a small group Tuareg people were driven out of their homes, mainly because others believed that they were the cause of the trouble the Malians, and their coup, were causing them. A BBC article says, "Since rebels seized control of much of Mali's vast northern desert region, tens of thousands of people, mainly from Tuareg communities, have fled to neighboring countries." The return of Al Qaeda? This poster was found on a site classified by the NYPD intelligence as a Category 1 website, meaning one heavily used by jihadis, religious warriors. It was apparently placed on the website by a regular poster of visual materials. This poster is telling everyone that Al Qeada is still a very big threat. This relates to the other African nations because the authorities think that this message was made in Sudan, and the poster is living behind the confusion of the rebellions in Sudan. ABC News, April 3rd 2012 2012 August - Thousands protest in Tunis against moves by Islamist-led government to reduce women's rights. Draft constitution refers to women as "complementary to men", whereas 1956 constitution granted women full equality with men. What causes the problems in Tunisia? 67% of Tunisians say that their country is headed in the wrong direction 60% describe the economy as bad or very bad, while 81% mention jobs as one of their top three issues, followed by "Developing the economy" (51%) and "Living Standards" (49%). 85% say that unemployment is the top problem facing the country, followed by economic crisis (63%). A rather stunning 57% of respondents say that they are not currently employed. Tunisia Presently Egypt's New Government and Continued Protests Causes:
1. This event is believed to have been caused by an anti-Muslim video that depicted Mohammed as a moron and a womanizer
2. Some believe that the attack was planned and the anti-Muslim video was only kindling for the fire conventional long form: Tunisian Republic
conventional short form: Tunisia
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah at Tunisiyah
local short form: Tunis Name Government Type: Republic Legal System mixed legal system of civil law, based on the French civil code, and Islamic law; some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session Prime Minister: Ali Zaydan Pres. Moncef MARZOUKI
Prime Min. Hamadi JEBALI
Min. of Agriculture Mohamed BEN SALEM
Min. of Culture Mehdi MABROUK
Min. of Education Abdellatif ABID
Min. of Environment Mamiya EL BANNA
Min. of Equipment & Housing Mohamed SALMANE
Min. of Finance (Acting) Slim BESBES
Min. of Foreign Affairs Rafik ABDESSALEM
Min. of Higher Education & Scientific Research Moncef BEN SALEM
Min. of Human Rights & Govt. Spokesman Samir DILOU
Min. of Industry & Trade Mohamed Amine CHAKHARI
Min. of Information Technology & Communications Mongi MARZOUK
Min. of Interior Ali LAAREYDH
Min. of Investment & International Cooperation Riadh BETTAIEB
Min. of Justice Noureddine BHIRI
Min. of Labor & Professional Training Abdelwahab MAATAR
Min. of National Defense Abdelkarim ZBIDI
Min. of Public Health Abellatif MEKKI
Min. of Regional Development & Planning Jameleddine GHARBI
Min. of Religious Affairs Nourredine KHADMI
Min. of Social Affairs Khalil ZAOUIA
Min. of State Property & Real Estate Slim BEN HMIDANE
Min. of Tourism Ilyes FAKHFAKH
Min. of Transport Karim HAROUNI
Min. of Women's Affairs & the Family Silhem BADI
Min. of Youth & Sports Tarik DIAB
Min.-Del. for Administrative Reform Mohamed ABBOU
Min.-Del. for Economic Issues Ridha SAADI
Min.-Del. for Governance & Combating Corruption Abderahmane LADGHAM
Min.-Del. for Relations With the Constituent Assembly Abderrazak KILANI
Pres., Constituent Assembly Mustapha BEN JAAFAR
Governor, Central Bank Chedli AYARI
Ambassador to the US
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York Mohamed Khaled KHIARI Government Leaders Tunisia's government has developed since they got their independence from France on March 20, 1956 Protests against Morsi's edict seperated Chief of State: Mustafa Muhammad Abd al-JALIL Current Government: Transitional When Mohamed Morsi, "issued constitutional amendments that placed him above judicial oversight," on November 22, 2012 many people protested against him, thinking this move was to gain power. ("Egypt News- Revolution and Aftermath" -New York Times) One of Morsi's advisers says that it's not a power grab, but an attempt to cement the path to limiting his powers. On March 21st, Malian soldiers who were displeased with the management of the Tuareg rebellion, attacked several locations in the capital Bamako, including the presidential palace and military barracks. The soldiers, who said they had formed the National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State(CNRDR), declared the following day that they had overthrown the government, and sent Amadou Toumani Touré, the Malian president into hiding. What about the
Arab Spring today? Morocco
Algeria
Sudan
Western Saharah Morocco Algeria Current State of Government: Libya Just like the King of Morocco, Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika gave the "illusions of reforms" without creating any significant change in the country. That is how Algerian society remained calm in the face of the Arab Spring. However the country is unequal, people don't know that the government is toying with them and is filled with corruption. What Does Transitional Government Mean? Executive Branch:
chief of state: President Muhammad al-MAQARYAF(since 10 August 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Ali ZAYDAN (since 14 November 2012)
cabinet: new cabinet sworn in 14 November 2012
elections: president elected by the General National Congress; term NA
elections: president elected by the General National Congress; term NA
election results: President Muhammad al-MAQARYAF elected by the General National Congress on 10 August 2012; al-MAQARYAF with 113 votes over Ali ZEDANE with 85 votes Legislative Branch:
elections: first GNC election held on 7 July 2012 (next to be held NA)
note: the 2012 election law calls for 200 seats - 120 constituency seats elected from 69 constituencies and 80 party list seats elected from 20 constituencies
Governments installed through non-democratic processes (coups, military, peace-deals, power-sharing agreements, etc.) and rule for a limited amount of time until a permanent government can come to power. Morocco was spared from the Arab Spring. The King of Morocco, King Mohammed VI, calls himself the descendant of the Prophet Mohammed and Commander of the Faithful. This is the only the monarch is still revered by his people. They wouldn't dare overthrow him. Morocco also had some protests, but it never lead to a revolution because Mohammed was quick to fix the demands of the people. While being ruled by France, Tunisia was still part of a monarchy Mohammed Bouazizi Sudan In Sudan, when protesters were demonstrating the cost of living, police have fired on demonstrators with rubber bullets and tear gas, university dormitories have been raided and students beaten, while hundreds of activists and opposition leaders have been jailed. This has happened multiple times, but despite all of the beatings, the government is keeping the people in check. There has been no official "Arab spring" in Sudan. However the people are still trying. On the 29th and 30th of June, 2012, the protesters planned their biggest protest yet. The protesters were meet with a huge crowd of police and military personal and were attacked with tear gas. The Arab spring is starting to grow roots in Sudan. A New Constitution Arab Spring (Update) November 22, 2012- Mohamed Morsi issues a decree that puts him above the law until a new constitution is approved. ("Mohamed Morsi." -New York Times) March 26, 2012- A group to begin writing the new Egyptian constitution assembles. This group is elected by the parliament and similar to the parliament, it is composed of many Islamists. June 7-12, 2012- After the first group was suspended in April, a new constitution group is formed. Still, even though negotiations were held between Islamists and non-Islamists in the Parliament for this assembly, there were different forms of protest. (Fisher) September-October, 2012- Non-Islam people boycott the new assembly, accusing it of, "forcing through an Islamist agenda and subverting the interests of women, youth, and the Christian minority." (Fisher) Late June, 2012- Mohamed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood becomes President of Egypt Video on Benghazi attack The former senior British diplomat Carne Ross said, "The Arab Spring is reshaping the political landscape of the region and creating a growing sense that people need to be heard" This is a great quote because it shows what the civilians really want from the government, to be heard. Western Sahara had the same problem as other countries in the Arab Spring. However, the rebels want to find a peaceful end to this conflict, and they are willing to negotiate for it. Many people have died on each side, making both the government and the rebels mourn for their lost ones. Sadly the government and the rebels still can't find an agreement, the Arab spring is still going strong. Western Sahara April 10, 2012- The constitutional assembly is suspended. The court never said exactly why, but many people believe it was to get rid of the Islamism within the group. What is the Muslim Brotherhood? The Muslim Brotherhood is a group of Islamists that was originally created to spread Islam and it's ideals, but soon became involved in politics. They were blamed, then banned for a failed assassination attempt of president Gamal Abdul Nasser in 1954. After maintaining a low profile and operating underground for years, they revealed themselves again in 2011 and did very well in the political realm. (BBC) November 2011-January 2012- After Mubarak was overthrown, Egypt's temporarily military ruled government began to hold elections for a new parliament. In these elections, the Muslim Brotherhood does very well. (Fisher) A poll two weeks after the group was created showed that 82% of the participating Egyptians wanted the assembly to be more inclusive (Fisher) December 23, 2012- While still controversial, a second round of voting ratifies the new, Islamist-backed constitution, however, the ways that Islamists used to get rid of their opponents ensures that there will still be lots of fighting back and forth between Islamist and non-Islamist groups. All that Morsi has to say about his actions throughout the creation of a new constitution was, “There have been mistakes here and there, and I bear responsibility.” ("Egypt News- Revolution and Aftermath" -New York Times) Egypt today? Radio Mfm Stefan Magdalinski CIA, "Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Foreign Governments." WND Popdecay CIA, "Libya" CIA, "Libya" CNN African Elections Database CBSNEWS CBSNEWS CBSNEWS CBSNEWS CBSNEWS CBSNEWS http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-202_162-57544719/timeline-how-benghazi-attack-probe-unfolded March 30, 2011- A temporary constitution is issued by the military, until a parliament is made, and the parliament elects a group to make the new constitution. February 11, 2011- Hosni Mubarak resigns. (BBC) Poster reads "Islam is the Solution" (CNN) Cause As Egypt was trying to reform the government after Mubarak, the government began to write a new constitution. However, disagreements between political parties and some bad decisions on the government's part made the process much harder. refugees (country of origin): 3,100 (Iraq); 2,700 (Palestinian Territories) (2012)
IDPs(Internally Displaced People): 93,000 (conflict between pro-Qadhafi and anti Qadhafi forces) (2011) After The Arab Spring in Libya... current situation: Libya is a transit and destination country for men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; Libya has experienced internal unrest, stranding many foreign workers in the country under harsh and unsafe conditions Location Human Trafficking CIA, Libya CIA, Libya "Tunisia Profile." BBC NEWS Egypt's capital Cairo was where most of the
action occurred. http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/fbi-nypd-investigating-image-promises-al-qaeda-return/story?id=16061887#.UOjEXBwyCql Toon Pool IISS Voices Merriam Webster IISS Voices BBC News Africa ABC News BBC World Service World Crunch The Independent New Internationalist
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