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The Project Lifecycle

FM DL Projects Module


on 31 January 2014

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Transcript of The Project Lifecycle

The Project Lifecycle
Project Lifecycle
The structure of projects
What is the lifecycle?
The type of activities at each stage

Projects In Controlled Environments
Process based approach (stages)
Establishing an organization structure around the projects
Assessing and managing risks that could impact on the project

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)

Describes 9 project management knowledge areas
Identifies processes that interact throughout and described in terms of inputs, tools and techniques and outputs

Family of process using incremental and iterative approaches

Project Structure
There are many computer systems available to help manage the project process
Microsoft Project/ BIW
In-house systems

Tools and frameworks
Does mastery of the frameworks make you a successful project manager?
Be careful to match your tools to the task in hand
Any project report is a static snapshot of a dynamic system
Don’t get caught in the trap of spending all your time updating paperwork

Project Management & Organizational Strategy
Does your organisation have it’s own project management process or framework?

Does it apply to the FM function?

How might it be improved?

The Project Lifecycle
Define / Initiate
Complete/ Closure/ Handover
………..Integration, Snagging, Next Steps

Effort and Risk
Effort generally starts low rises through to implementation and then declines
Risk and uncertainty start high and then reduce
Is this consistent with your experience?

1. Define / Initiation
- Business Case
Defining the project
beneficial gains
- Scope
What is in and what is not in the project
Definition of quality, cost and time
- Project Initiation Document
Terms of reference
Key Stakeholder agreement / understanding
Sign off
- Formation

Terms of Reference:

Discussion of initiation
An area not given sufficient time, resource and attention?
Clear understand of AS IS and TO BE?
Often the source of future problems

PID: What? Why? Who? How? When?

Facility Management Code of Practice BS 8536: 2010
“The design brief should be capable of extending beyond the design phase into construction work and/or installation, testing and commissioning, handover and start-up of operations, and so it should be capable of informing decision-making in those phases and stages.
Use of terms and definitions across the different phases and stages should be consistent” (p8)

2. Planning
Three types of planning
- Project
- Stage
- Exception
Should include (Prince 2)
- Detailed plan
- Evaluation process
- Position analysis
- Fact finding
- Options generation
- Options evaluation
- Scenario planning and buffering
- Revisit feasibility

Planning the Execution of the Project
SWOT analysis
Risk – RAID template
Team and structure (resources)
Stakeholder Map
Communication Plan
Quality Plan
Work Breakdown Structure
Action Plan
Filing Process
Gantt Charts
Critical Path Analysis
Resource Histogram
Milestones and Gateway Setting
Change Control Process

3. Implementation
Usually a formal gateway
A move from planning to action
Change in the people and systems involved
Point at which responsibility becomes more real

Control System
- Progress
- Time Cost Quality
- Reporting & Governance
- Response to Milestones and Gateways
- Monthly RAG report
- Risk & Tolerances
- Issues
- Change Requests & Impact
- Team
- Stakeholder Management

4. Change Control
The later in the project a change is made
the more difficult it will be and the greater the expense
Scope Creep
Suggested formal process

Risk Analysis
Risk Identification and Management
Avoidance &/or Prevention
Mitigation &/ or Contingency
Early Warnings
On-going analysis of risk in a changing environment
Avoid ‘fighting fires’ – reactionary and short term fixes – one crisis can lead to another

5. Completing
Evaluation and Review
Hand Over
Follow On Recommendations
Risk & Issues Log
Lessons Learnt

Project closure
What happens next?
Team breaks up
Post completion review
Danger of project
'too' separate from 'normal' operation

Framework Criticism
Framework supports discipline (FM? : Yim Yu, 2008)
Over management with heavy reliance on administration?
Theory can become an end in itself and distract from the project purpose
Need for business lead not just project lead

Project life cycle showing the discontinuity caused by skill separation

Brown et al, 2001, p.126
A tool for organizational advantage
“[Project management] is now being increasingly accepted as an inclusive concept integrated into general organisational endeavor to provide better quality to customers through effective intra-organisational integration and optimal utilisation of scarce resources”
(Cimcil, S.J.K., 1997, pg. 391)

“An FM lead approach could change the fundamental gearing of workspace provision form the traditional models to one directly in line with business objectives, and measurable against business outcomes"
(Brown et al, 2001, pg. 125)

"A digital representation of the physical and functional characteristics of a building over its life cycle ...

... A building information model might embody, for example, building geometry, spatial relationships, geographic information and the quantities and properties of building components"

BS 8536 (FM Briefing Code of Practice, pg 3)
"The only certainly in a project is that, without focus on the required objectives, the full support of senior management for the project manager and team, and the appropriate choice and use of planning and control techniques, a project will usually fail to achieve the desired outcomes"

British Standards Institution (2010). BS 6079, page 1

Barber, E., & Warn, J., (2005). Leadership in Project Management: From Firefighter to Firelighter. Management Decision 43 (7/8), pgs. 1032-1039.
British Standards Institution (2012). BS ISO 21500: Guidance on Project Management. [online]. London, British Standards Institution. Standard from British Standards Online last accessed 24 January 2012 at: https://bsol-bsigroup-com.lcproxy.shu.ac.uk/en/BsolHomePage/

British Standards Institution (2010). BS 6079: Project Management- Part 1: Principles and Guidelines for the Management of Projects [online]. London, British Standards Institution. Standard from British Standards Online last accessed 24 January 2012 at: https://bsol-bsigroup-com.lcproxy.shu.ac.uk/en/BsolHomePage/

British Standards Institution (2010). BS 8536: Facility Management Briefing- Code of Practice. [online]. London, British Standards Institution. Standard from British Standards Online last accessed 25/01/2013 at: https://bsol-bsigroup-com.lcproxy.shu.ac.uk/en/BsolHomePage/

Harvard Business Essentials (2004). Managing Projects Large and Small: The Fundamental Skills for Delivering on Budget and on Time. Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation

HM Government (2012) Industrial Strategy: Government and Industry in Partnership: Building Information Modelling. Available at www.bis.gov.uk, last accessed 15/041/2013
PID http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_85.htm Last accessed 25/01/13

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