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The history of Ireland

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Nele Brügge

on 26 November 2013

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Transcript of The history of Ireland

from prehistory to Heinrich II
the Easter Rising
Ireland and the UK
The history of Ireland
from prehistory to Heinrich II
Ireland and the UK
Easter Rising
Irish Independence War
two ideologies- one country?
The Troubles
the chain-reaction
Bloody Sunday
Good Friday Agreement
What do you already know about the history of Ireland?
4th to 7th century
14th century
600 BC
7500 BC
the Christians arrive at Ireland
in the 4th and 5th century the Chrisitans spread over Ireland

the "High kings" got important
the Vikings
795: first Vikings in Ireland
1014: Vikings were beaten in the battle of Clontarf
--> Ireland united for the first time
1171 Henry II new king of Ireland
1st Irish Parliament
Ireland defended themselves more and more against the british government
UK beat them -> Ireland lost importance and power
hunters and gatherers
first people arrived in Ireland
the Celtics
War of Independence
the War
IRA against the British government in Ireland
Michael Collins
war of propaganda
1920: UK lost control of many parts of Ireland
11th of July 1921: ceasefire
Northern Ireland
didn´t want to be part of the free state
got part of the UK
Republic of Ireland
(free state)
an independent state of the British Empire
got his own government
still had a British ruler as a formal head of the state

two ideologies- one country?
The Troubles
civil rights movement
of the catholic people:
- same rights for catholic and
protestant citizens ("one
man-one vote")
- no discrimination
- a neutral ombudsman

violence of protestant citizens
brutal acts against the peaceful demonstrations
-> revival of the IRA
12.Aug 1969: protestants attacked the catholic part of Derry
-> provocation
isolation of the quarter
street fights
between the catholics and the protestant citizens (+the police)
in Derry
-> famous Battle of Bogside
expansion of the violence
the chain reaction
Bloody sunday
Good friday agreement
the unionists
Ireland should belong to Great Britain
no Irish parliament
the nationalists
a united Ireland (northern Ireland and the southern part)
to be completely independent of England
mostly of catholic background
radical form: republicans
the most important paramilitary organisation: IRA
great part of the unionists were protestants:
radical form: loyalists -
arose from the "Irish Volunteers"
they were turned to the legitimate army of "Dáil Éirean"
was split (1921) after ceasefire
into - Irish National Army
- opponents of the
(the "Provisionals")
-united nothern and
southern Ireland
- keeping the rights
of the Irish
riots (also in other districts and cities like Belfast)
victims, injured persons and expelled families
destruction of whole districts
-> generation of ghettos
decision of the IRA to attack the army

and to eliminate every form of english influence on northern Ireland
arresting of innocent people
to find the headmen of the IRA
"operation demetrius" : about 350 arrested people from catholic districts -> prison camps
more violence and protests
the bloodiest years:
1971 and 1972

about 480 people were killed
most of them (250) were civilists
many strikes against internent -> excesses
intervention of the british army
the today's Irish language is out of one Celtic language
the Easter Rising
Home Rule Bill
Ireland and the UK
1541: Ireland belonged to the British crown
demonstration of Irish people against the British parliament -> 1603 ceasefire- Ireland still belonged to the UK
1642-1782: again fights between Ireland and the UK to become Irish Independence
1801: "Act of Union"
30th January 1972
13 protestors were killed on a demonstration
(for more civil rights and against the internment politic) by the british army
army: protestors opened the fire
->no soldier was hurt, five protestors had shots in the back
acts of revenge of the IRA

May 1915
reason: more and more fought for Irish Independence
Ireland should get his own government
not everyone liked the idea of the home rule (wanted to be completely independent from the UK)
hadn´t take place because of the 1st wold war and the Ester Rising
24th-30th of April 1916
Irish people tried to become independent of using violence
Ireland lost
victims: about 500 British soldiers and 1000 Irish soldiers
the destruction of the Four Courts
Bloody Friday
about 20 bombs of the IRA exploded
ca. 150 hurt people, 9 were killed
excuse: no intention of killing civilists, warnings
non-radical nationalists turned away from the IRA
-> start of the political ruin of the IRA
violence continued
1980-90 : more murder on catholic persons
1998: good friday agreement:
no united northern and southern Ireland
-> no ultimate decision, possible reunion
cooperation of the authorities
the british army has to retire
releasing of the interned catholic persons
lowering of the force level of the
british army

conflict between english- scottish, unionistic protestants
(northern Ireland should belong to GB)
and irish- nationalistic catholics (united Ireland)
small number of active persons
about 4000 killed people, most of them civilists
destroyed districts
Today :
great influence on attitudes of todays people
separated catholic and protestant areas and quarters
high unemployment (especially of the catholic citizens)
Michael Collins
the finance minister of Ireland
one of the most important people in the War of Independence
member of the IRA
Ireland celebrates him as a hero
"United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland"

many innocent people were killed; many villages destroyed
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