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PTSD

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PTSD Group

on 9 December 2014

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Transcript of PTSD

PTSD
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
A type of anxiety disorder triggered by traumatic experiences.
Thy spirit within thee hath been so at war,

And thus hath so bestirred thee in thy sleep,

That beads of sweat have stood upon thy brow

Like bubbles in a late-disturbèd stream,

And in thy face strange motions have appeared,

Such as we see when men restrain their breath

On some great sudden hest.
Shakespeare, W. (1597). Henry IV. Part 1, Act 2, Scene 3, Lines 51-57.
Diagnosis
Causes
War zone experience
Physical or sexual assault
Natural disasters

Abuse or Torture

In children, especially those who are very young, the symptoms of PTSD can be different than the symptoms in adults.
Symptoms in children and adolescence
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms
Re-Experiencing
Negative Alterations in Cognition and Mood
Avoidance
Reign Over Me
2 symptoms required
Born on the 4th of July
1 symptom required
Flashbacks

(acting or feeling like the event is happening again)
Recurrent and upsetting memories
and dreams of the event
Psychological distress to cues resembling event
Avoiding thoughts, feelings, and conversations

that are reminders of the traumatic event
Avoiding activities, places, or people

that are reminders of the traumatic event
Incapable of remembering
important aspects of the trauma.
Distorted blame

of self or others (guilt or shame)
Inability to experience positive emotions
Feelings of
detachment or estrangement

from others
Inability to recall important aspects of the trauma (
repression
)
Expressing a
lack of interest in activities
previously enjoyed
Hopelessness
about the future
Difficulty maintaining close relationships
Hyperarousal
Sleep disturbance
(Insomnia, Night Terrors, Nightmares)
Irritable behavior
and outbursts of anger
Problems with concentration
Hypervigilance
(High responsiveness to stimuli)
Reckless or
self-destructive behavior
Exaggerated startle response
Comorbidity
Dissociative Subtype of PTSD
Newer studies suggest that the conscious mind may cope with trauma and the inability to escape it by experiencing dissociative symptoms:
Substance Abuse
Depression
Anxiety
PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES
A. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
B. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)

C. Exposure Therapy (EX)
D. Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT)
E. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
HUMANISTIC AND EXISTENTIAL APPROACHES
A. Humanistic-Existential
Psychotherapy
B. Positive Psychology
C. Transpersonal Psychology
D. Relational Dharma
MIND-BODY APPROACHES
A. Biofeedback and Neurofeedback
B. Meditation
C. Hypnosis
D. Relaxation
E. Energy Psychology
Systematic programs
designed to
eliminate or
reduce problematic symptoms
and unpleasant experiences associated with an individual's post-traumatic stress.
Treatments
Child abuse
Sudden death of a loved one
Life threatening events

~50%
of those diagnosed with PTSD have one or more
previously existing mental health condition(s)
A diagnosis of PTSD requires:

Symptom clusters
Persistent symptoms for more than one month

Depersonalization
:
experience of being an
outside observer

of or
detached

from oneself.

Derealization
:
experience

of

unreality, distance, or distortion.

Symptoms in children include:

Fear of being separated

from parent
Nightmares
and
Night Terrors
Somber, compulsive play

in which themes or aspects
of the trauma are repeated
New phobias and anxieties
that seem unrelated to the trauma (such as a fear
of monsters)
Acting out the trauma

through play, stories,
or drawings
Losing previously acquired skills

(such as toilet training)
Aches and pains

with no apparent cause
Irritability and aggression
The extent to which the traumatic event was unexpected, uncontrollable, and inescapable plays a role in the risk factors that increase vulnerability.

F. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
G. Group Approaches
H. Psychopharmacological Approaches
Insight-oriented therapy
Addresses dysfunctional emotions, maladaptive behaviors, and cognitive processes.
Promotes self-awareness and personal growth by stressing current reality.
Low-cost approach; A complement to traditional psychotherapy or drug treatments.
Antidepressants

treat secondary symptoms

of anxiety and depression.
PTSD Group Members
Psychology 101 : Susan Johnson
Emily Palminteni

Jasmine Gonzalez

Moira Scott
Juan Martinez

Medina Mohammed

Anthony Martinez
PTSD Symptom Clusters
Full transcript