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PROSODIC FEATURES

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pame guardia

on 5 April 2014

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Transcript of PROSODIC FEATURES

Some Definitions
"Prosodic features are features of speech such as pitch, loudness and quantity that affect stretches of utterances longer than a segment, such as a syllable, a word or a sentence.” (Ortiz Lira, H.; English Phonetics for Spanish Speakers)
PROSODIC FEATURES
Pitch
The aspect of auditory sensation in terms of which sounds may be ordered on a scale running from low (grave) to high (acute).

Stress
A property of syllables which makes them stand out as more noticeable than others. It seems likely that stressed syllables are produced with greater effort than unstressed ones.

Pause
A relatively brief silence or other speech phenomenon producing a similar impression.
Juncture
The way one sound is attached to its neighbours. It’s the transition from sound to sound either within the word or within the sentence.

Tempo
The linguistic use of speech rate or speed. We use such variations to convey something about our attitudes and emotions.

Intonation
The variations in the pitch of the voice used to convey or alter the meaning.

Prosodic features are features of speech as intonation, rhythm, stress, voice quality, loudness and tempo that can be added to the basic segments, usually to a sequence of more than one sound. (Roach, P.; Introducing Phonetics)

Prosodic features are those features which are not grammar, vocabulary or segmental phonology but as important as them. (Crystal D; Prosodic Systems and Intonation in English)

“I considered and rejected a number of alternative terminologies to the use of prosodic: suprasegmental, for ex., because it carried too dominantly the implications of a specific linguistic theory and because the prefix supra implies a priority of segmental over non-segmental features.” (Crystal D.)

The pattern of prominent and non-prominent syllables in an utterance.
Rhythm
The auditory impression of the amount of energy present in sounds. We all use greater loudness to overcome difficult communication conditions (bad telephone line).

Loudness
Duration. Sounds or sounds sequences can be ordered on a scale running from short to long. A change in length would imply a change in speed or rhythm of the unit.

Length
What's the aim of considering these features?
Confidence
Intelligibility
Communicability
To monitor our mistakes
John?
John!
John
This is my wife, Laura.
This is my wife Laura.
It's my office. (friendly, inviting)
It's my office. (rude, invaded)
Intonation
Pitch
Pause
Stress
Juncture
Rhythm
Loudness
Tempo
Length
can change meaning
add something extra about the speaker or the situation where speech takes place
Full transcript