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# Quantitative Research

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by

## Pauline Sainson

on 10 March 2017

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#### Transcript of Quantitative Research

Topics
Definition ?
How is it collected ?
How is it analysed ?
How is it useful ?
Categorical data
Descriptive data
Nominal data
Dichotomous data
Continuous data
Discrete data

Categorical data
Collected in numbers
Puts a meaning to those numbers
Grouped into categories
Issued in an EITHER/OR or YES/NO fashion
Sometimes in bar charts or Pie charts displayed

Descriptive data
Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic features of the data in a study.
They provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures.
With descriptive statistics you are simply describing what is or what the data shows.
Descriptive Statistics are used to present quantitative descriptions in a manageable form.
Descriptive statistics help us to simplify large amounts of data in a sensible way.

Nominal data
Nominal data consists of two categories
This is mainly used for labeling variables without any quantitative value
Ex. Hair colours
Where they live
Easy way to remember is that nominal sounds like “name” which then reminds you of the none numerical aspect of the nominal data

WATCH IT!
Definitions
Categorical data
Descriptive data
Nominal data
Dichotomous data
Continuous data
Discrete data

Quantitative Research
However, the nominal scale that consists only two categories is called “dichotomous”

Dichotomous data
very general type of data + designates any kind of data that consists of two variables
Famous examples are heads and tails, when conducting experiments and gathering data for heads and tails, since there are only two possibilities then it is gathered as dichotomous data
Surveys regarding gender are also an example
Dichotomous data overlaps with other kinds of data that is gathered, such as continuous data or discrete data
As long as it has only two variables then it is dichotomous data, and therefore continuous data can contain only two variables, making it continuous and dichotomous simultaneously (applicable to any other kind of data)
Dichotomous, like any other kind of data, is gathered by conducting surveys, or experiments, where people take part and produce results based on specific requirements
Based on what kind of results are gathered (heads or tails, male or female), results can be gathered on a chart, individually or on a graph

Continuous data
It does have a connection with discrete data
Continuous data are not restricted to defined separate values, but can occupy any value over a continuous range.
Example: Height of a person, time in a race, a dogs weight
Continuous Data can take any value (within a range)

Discrete data
DATA THAT CAN ONLY TAKE CERTAIN VALUES
IT IS THE OPPOSITE OF CONTINIOUS DATA

E.G. THE NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN A CLASS

Purpose
To quantify data and generalize results from a sample to the population of interest
To measure the incidence of various views and opinions in a chosen sample
Sometimes followed by qualitative research which is used to explore some findings further
Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon

How it's collected
Sample : Usually a large number of cases representing the population of interest. Randomly selected respondents.
Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal relationships.
Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical data.
Structured techniques such as online questionnaires, on-street or telephone interviews.

How is it analyzed
Statistical data is usually in the form of tabulations (tabs). Findings are conclusive and usually descriptive in nature.

How is it useful? The aim?
The overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed.
Outcome = Used to recommend a final course of action.
E.g Science, Math,

By: Paula Schroeder, Pauline Sainson, Camille Mossé, Joachim Barblan
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