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The Big Bang Theory

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Avani Shah

on 6 November 2014

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Transcript of The Big Bang Theory


The Theory
Hubble
The Big Bang Theory
This radiation is left overs from the big bang and can be found in all directions of the universe. This radiation is sought to be the earliest one that can be detected, at about 387,000 years after the big bang. Before CMB radiation the universe was hot, dense, and opaque containing matter and energy. Because photons (small packet of light energy) could not travel freely no light escaped the earlier times.
This is the theory that gives us a reasonable explanation of how the universe came to be. It was nothing and then ever so suddenly there was something. If one believes in this theory then the universe was sought to form 13.7 billion years ago. What this theory mainly explains is how a small condensed dot one day started to expand outward in all directions with a rapid velocity. The big bang continues to expand cooling our universe from the high dense state it was in. So...let us get started and learn more about this concept that very well created us.
Let us go back to 1929 and take a look at Edwin Hubble. One of Hubble's major contributing discoveries was that the Universe is expanding at at an enormous speed. In fact, not only did he discover the universe's on going expansion, though he also took notes on galaxies moving away from our own Milky Way Galaxy at speeds equal to the distance it currently stands from us. These observations he had inferred and concluded led him to think that their had to have been an instant time when all the universe was condensed into a point in nothing (space). He further went on to infer that the entire universe must have been born in a single event know as the Big Bang.
Moments after the Big Bang
Now this didn't happen in a day...
IT wasn't just Bam
It was a bit more like this:
It took billions of years for the universe to form what it is today, 13.7 billion to be exact.
BANG!
An abyss of nothingness that stretched on forever with no sound or even light, then Bang! A tiny ball of matter rapidly starts expanding creating the universe of today.
From the first that we can remember we've been asking, "Why are things the way they are?"
And the best answer we have from the effort of scientists and everyday people alike is the BBT.
The universe started with the dense "dot" that started to expand. Scientists were able to get close to the start of it all at 10 million trillion trillion trillionths of a second after the bang. Before this time the four fundamental forces: gravity, electromagnetism, and strong and weak nuclear forces had unified together.
During the first second of the universe the basic building blocks of atoms formed consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Photons collided with these and converted their energy into mass, causing the four forces to split. The temperature of the universe cooled from 100 million trillion trillion degrees to 10 billion degrees during this time also.
Three minutes after the big bang when the universe had cooled to one billion degrees protons and neutrons mixed to form nuclei
of new heavy elements including helium.
Stars we see today and distant and close galaxies only started to form one billion years after the big bang since that day the universe has been expanding and cooling giving stable support to life.
To sum it all up:
Moving on from Edwin Hubble there was George Lemaitre. Lemaitre used Hubble's discovery to speak on his and prove his theories. His first discovery was before Hubble's but it was ignored for he had no data. Once Hubble had his theory out Lemaitre used it to his own advantage. His original theory was that "the expanding universe was the same in all directions -- the same laws applied, and its composition was the same -- but it was not static". Finally to get to Lemaitre's actual theory he used Hubble's description of the galaxies rushing further apart from each other as the galaxies moving inward to each other. At a certain point the galaxies are coming inward are forced together into an atom that had contained all the matter in the universe. These two astronomers contributed these great ideas to the legend behind the big bang.
Lemaitre
Watch this short clip for more information on Hubble:
Bam
What is CMB? Cosmic Background radiation.
CMB provides a basic understanding of the composition of the universe. A high percentage of the universe (68.3%) is made up of dark energy, the force driving the expansion of the universe. The next ingredient is dark matter which interacts with the rest of the universe through its gravity. Dark matter is 26.8% of the composition of the universe. Normal matter are visible stars, planets, and galaxies makes up, up to 4.9% composition of the universe.
CMB was created at a time when the universe had cooled to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit. This was cool enough for protons, and electrons to combine into hydrogen atoms. Photons were released.
Composition of universe from CMB
The combination
Arno and Robert
So far we have been through the visuals of the big bang, let us enter now the sounds. There were two scientists who were studying microwave signals. They were using specialized antenna equipment. They heard a mysterious noise coming from their equipment but not knowing quite what it was they inferred it was pigeon droppings. To make sure they were correct the men trapped the birds and cleaned the equipment. When they still heard the noise they had realized it was coming from none but their own equipment. They had picked up a signal.
How do we know about this?
300,000 years after the Big Bang the universe cooled to 3000 degrees. At this temperature, electrons could combine with atomic nuclei to form neutral atoms.
AVANI SHAH AND ERIN SMITH
THE BIG BANG THEORY
PRESENTING
Sources
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bang
http://www.famousbelgians.net/lemaitre.htm
http://iliketowastemytime.com/space?page=3
http://godandsoul.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/bigbang1.jpg
http://jwst.nasa.gov/images/hydrogenatom_big.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b5/Wilson_penzias200.jpg
http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/files/2013/10/02-1_01pf.jpg
https://www.teachengineering.org/collection/cub_/lessons/cub_images/cub_mix_lesson1_image1.jpg
http://www.newtonsapple.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Helium-atoms-has-two-electrons-neutrons-and-protons.jpg
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http://www.big-bang-theory.com/
http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-powered-the-big-bang/
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dp27bi.html
http://www.pbs.org/wnet/hawking/universes/html/bang.html
http://www.space.com/20330-cosmic-microwave-background-explained-infographic.html
http://www.hrpictures.com/bigbang/image7.jpg
http://spiff.rit.edu/classes/phys440/lectures/gal_clus/m31_ware_big.jpg
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