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Chapter 4: Public Administration and Public Affairs

by Nicholas Henry

John Bolduc

on 25 January 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 4: Public Administration and Public Affairs

How do organizations adapt to the fury of forces that roil them?
(superfluous diction? it means agitate) Researchers weave threads of theory into a fabric. Sometime they weave a tapestry, other times a drop cloth. Chapter 4 The Fabric of Organizations: Forces Testing for Efficiency Effectiveness is measured by the organization's ability to complete tasks.

Government Agencies may have crystalized (fixed and definite) standards, but the members may not know what causes what.

Homeland Secuity vs. International Widget Organizations use three broad "tests" to judge their own social worth. Public Safety Police?
Corrections? Testing for Society The Social Test measures an organizations ability to to appear relevant and useful in achieving it's mission. It is the best means of assessment for organizations which have ambiguous standards of desirability. Assessing Organization Worth 1.) Testing for Efficiency
2.) Testing for Effectiveness
3.) Testing for Society Tactics of Administration Persuasion



Intervention An important variant of decision making is administration, or decision making writ small (more superfluous diction? means -> on a smaller scale).

Administration is based on coalitions.
'Coalitional' species compete for status and influence.

The larger the organization, the more coalitions, more coalitions,
harder to manage. Administration in Organizations Administration in Public Organizations:
A Different Dynamic The Whirlwind
Public Admins have less control over time management than private sector admins

The Pressures
More Conflicting Environments
More External Stakeholders

Stereotype vs. Reality vs. Self Image Administration in Organizations Decision Making in Public Organizations:
A Different Dynamic An Attenuated Autonomy
Bargaining vs. Analysis
A Complex Process
Taking it Slowly and Cautiously
Participation and Consultation
Consulting with Whom?
Caution, Communications, and Unappreciated Peril.
The Quality of Question The Bounds of Individual Rationality The Decision Premise
Sector: Public or Private?
Organization: Does the decision reflect the organizational values?

Bounded Reality: Do we comprehend the whole picture?

Satificing Decisions: Herbert Simon-> Satisfied + Sufficed = Satisficing

Group Think: Individuals give in to the group even when the know the decision is wrong and could be catastrophic. Decision Making in Organizations The principle reason underlying this darker side of decision making is that people who make decisions, like all people, are less than logical. Decision Making in Nonprofit Organizations:
More Talks, Fights, and Risk Consultative Decision Making
more interactive
more steps
bargaining results in better strategic decisions

Conflictual Decision Making
Conflict Breaks out earlier in decision making process
Nonprofits think conflict defines issues more sharply

Riskier Decision Making
Nonprofits are more willing to take risks
less concerned with salaries and benefits
value job security much less than private or public execs The Bounds of Organization Rationality Types of Organizational Decision Making:
Table 4.1 on Pg. 65.

Mismatching Organizations and Decision Making

Organized Anarchys and the Garbage Can of Decision Making Decision Making in Organizations Knowledge and Power have been defined as ", what changes us" or, more formally, "data that passes through a person's mind that becomes meaningful." Information and Decision Making Know-Nothing Decision Making

Information as a Symbol
All Show and No GO?

Making Decision Faster--- And Better

My Opinion: Maybe not faster, but better decisions which do not have to be done over... Organizational Knowledge The Osmotic Impact of the Agency's Environment Environmental Forces not intended to influence agencies can cause the most impact.
FDA Example
Power of the Press

Environmental Forces change the accountability, structure, hierarchy, procedures, and autonomy of public organizations more than they do their private and nonprofit counterparts. Change in Public Organizations: Politics, Pressures, and Prohibitions Government Agencies are pressured to change when specific elements of their environments change

Public Administrators should come to grips with the forces surrounding them, and make their agencies more proactive.

Even when they rise to these challenges, they still need the support of the oversight bodies before they are "allowed" to be responsive. Environmental Impacts on Public Organizations Politics, Pressures, and Prohibitions
Ordering Agency Openness
Osmotic Impact of the Agency's Environment
The Fragmentation of Agency Accountability
The Iron Triangle: Resisting Reorganization
The Bureaucratization of Public Organization
Administrative Autonomy and Performance
The Environment and the Nonprofit The Iron Triangle Reorganization Resistance and Futility Who's in Charge Here? The Fragmentation of Accountability A Parsing of Policies
Single Policy are spread among several agencies
Most federal agency's execute three or more major, wholly different policies.;
Who is responsible for the performance?

A Bevy of Bosses
Most Federal agencies report to dozens of legislative oversight committees, the private sector usually have one Board of Directors
Homeland Security Table on page 78 Ordering Agency Openness "Sunshine Laws" - All fifty states have them

Under the Federal of Freedom of Information Act of 1966, anyone can demand information for the federal government. The same applies to State, and Local government to varying degrees.

Complying with Public Records Requests distracts from efficient achieving of agencies' mission.

Agency Advisory Committees

Affects of Administrative Procedure Acts Deep Change: The Impact of Environment on the Public Organization The Likely Limited Role of Technology Constraining What Public Agencies Do
By their nature Public Agencies rarely change what they do.

Process Technologies vs. Product Technologies
In business, changing products far easier than changing process
Since public agencies rarely product products, it is natural that they change slower that private and nonprofit organizations Governments are not associated in the public mind with swift-paced change. But they Do Change. Change is limited by:

The Limited Role of Technology and Nature of the Business

Peoples Ability to Make Change due the Environment of the Public Agency. People Changing Their Public Organization Paladins of Public Change (Champions of Change)
Career Administrators Innovate
Front-line Supervisors and Mid-Managers out Innovate Administrators 2 to 1
Why? Because they are closer to the action.
But they do so at the own peril, because they are often seen in a negative light.

Human Choice or Environmental Determinism?
People are not Pawns, but they are impeded by the environment more in the public sector than in the private sector. Limited Change: The Impact of Technology and People on the Public Organization Information and Hierarchy Absorbing Uncertainty

Centralization and the Fate of Intelligence

Decentralization and the Fate of Intelligence Effectiveness or Social Tests? What about Non-Profits? How do they fit in? Dilbert What is the difference between knowledge and wisdom? The more layers there are in an organization and the more the information is handled, the more likely it will become distorted and/or not reach someone who can act intelligently on it! All of us are inundated by data, how do you know which information is meaningful? True? How does anything meaningful get done? Just as the rationality of organizational members is bounded, so is the rationality of the Organization as a whole. Government? Choice Success 49% 30% 13% 8% 58% 50% 80% 90% Rating Adequate -Good Adequate Good -Outstanding Good - Outstanding We are better than we than Anybody thinks we are! High on the Hierarchic Hog
Hierarchy and Effective Government
Reams of Red Tape
Rue the Rules!
Red Tape and Effective Government
Explaining Bureaucratic Accretion The Bureaucratization of Public Organization Because the environment constrains the Organization's autonomy, it weakens the performance of the Public Organization.

When Public Organizations are granted greater independence, at least up to a point, they perform better.

Within the context of extreme openness, some enhancement of of administrative independence and autonomy will likely result is more efficient and effective government. Administrative Autonomy and the Performance of Public Organizations Nonprofits suffer the same treatment as Government Organizations and respond in similar ways to these pressures.

However, they seem to be endowed with greater flexibility to do so. The Environment and the Independent Organization
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