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Transcript of Victorian Era
Used fiction to criticize economic, social, and moral abuses
Notable works: Oliver Twist (1837), A Christmas Carol (1843), Great Expectations (1861),
to respond readily about the conditions of England
-Manners and morals
- Social realism
- Rapid growth of the middle classes
- Strict Morality
-Curious Yet Doubtful Through Change
Lets Jump Into The Era
- Queen Victoria's reign (1837-1901)
- Longest reign in British history
- Social, political, cultural, economic, industrial and scientific changes
-It was a long period of peace, prosperity and nationalism for Britain.
Why Victorian Era?
The Victorian Period 1832-1901
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
To Modern Era
From Romantic Era
People were recharging after the Romantic era.
Authors/Poets of the Era
Alfred Lord Tennyson
August 5 1809-October 6 1892
Work: Poems (1833)
Morte De Arthur
Lady of Shallot
E. B. Browning & R. Browning
In 1857 Browning published her verse novel Aurora Leigh, which portrays male domination of a woman.
In her poetry she also addressed child labor mines and mills of England, and slavery, among other social injustices.
-Life of Charlotte Bronte,1857
-July 1913- Four letters printed by The Times
-broke Charlotte's image as an angelic martyr (revealed her love for a married man)
July 30, 1818-December 1948
Adopted pseudonyms for publication (Ellis Bell)
Poems by Currer, Ellis and Action Bell, published in 1846 - Only sold two copies
One and only novel
His most influential essays, however, were those on literary topics.
ex."The Function of Criticism" (1865)
"The Study of Poetry" (1880)
As a poet Arnold is generally admitted to rank among the Victorians next after Tennyson and Browning.
Arnold's poetry often wrestles with problems of psychological isolation. ex. Dover Beach (1867)
E. B. Browning
England industrializes; Abusement of Laissez-Faire by English companies.
Another influential social factor is Woman's rights
Browning, most widely known for his poetry.
Overshadowed by his wife.
Women's gowns developed wide puffed sleeves
Realistic flower trimming were on dresses
Petticoats, corsets, chemises were worn under gowns
Short gloves or fingerless lace or crocheted mitts
Men wore tight-fitting, calf length frock coats and a waistcoat or vest
-Published in 1847
Theme -the destructive effect that jealousy and vengefulness can create
Symbolism of anorexia
Exchange of romantic letters
“I wish I were a girl again, half savage and hardy, and free... Why am I so changed? I'm sure I should be myself were I once among the heather on those hills.”
Born: November 30, 1835 in Florida, Missouri
“The Celebrated Jumping Frog” November 18, 1865.
Twains first book: “The Innocents Abroad” in 1869
“The adventures of Tom Sawyer” in 1865
“The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” 1885 In America
In total he wrote 28 books
Passed away: April 21, 1910
"The Advetures of Huckleberry Finn"
Published: December 1884 and in America 1885
Genres: Satire, Fiction, Novel, Adventure fiction, Children's literature, Humour
• The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a sequel
• Mark Twain was a threat to public morality, childhood innocence, and the purity of the English language by the publishing of Huckleberry Fin.
• Twain soon set Huckleberry Finn aside, perhaps because its darker tone did not fit the optimistic sentiments of the Gilded Age.
-April 12 1816-March 31, 1855
-Adopted pseudonyms (Currer Bell)
-Only one who survived into adulthood
-Byronic stories (Angria)
Poems about Gondal
-The professor (first manuscript)
second manuscript, Aug. 1847
-Jane Eyre (most famous novel)
• Published on 16 October 1847
• Symbolic to her life (crush on her teacher, her father being blinded, her brother being a drunk and acting crazy)
• The focus is on the gradual unfolding of Jane's moral and spiritual sensibility
• Social criticism (classism, proto-feminism)
• Strict morality (refuses to become Mr. Rochester's paramour and rejects St. John Rivers' religious passion)
“I am no bird; and no net ensnares me: I am a free human being with an independent will.”
Political and Social Events
Women's rights convention is led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
Japan opens trade to west
Medical Act closes loophole that briefly allowed women to become physicians in Great Britian
- 4th July 1804
-House of Seven Gables
-The Scarlet Letter
-American Notebooks (1868)
Matthew Arnold (1822-1888)
Anne Brontë (1820-1849)
Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855)
Emily Brontë (1818-1848)
Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861)
Robert Browning (1812-1889)
Samuel Butler (1835-1902)
Lewis Carroll (1832-1898)
Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881)
Wilkie Collins (1824-89)
Arthur Hugh Clough (1819-1861)
Charles Dickens (1812-1870)
Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930)
George Eliot (1819-1880)
Elizabeth Gaskell (1810-1865)
George Gissing (1857-1903)
Thomas Hardy (1840-1928)
Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889)
A. E. Housman (1859-1936)
William Henry Giles Kingston (1814-1880)
Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936)
Letitia Elizabeth Landon (1802-1838)
Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-59)
George Moore (1852-1933)
William Morris (1834-96)
George Meredith (1828-1909)
John Stuart Mill (1806-73)
Walter Pater (1839-94)
Coventry Patmore (1823-96)
Christina Rossetti (1830-1894)
Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882)
John Ruskin (1819-1900)
George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)
Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894)
Bram Stoker (1847-1912)
Algernon Charles Swinburne (1837-1909)
Alfred Tennyson (Lord) (1809-1892)
Anthony Trollope (1815–82)
William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863)
H.G. Wells (1866-1946)
Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)
William Butler Yeats (1865-1939)
The Lady of Shallot
based on an Italian Romance
largely successful for its mystery and elusiveness
contemplative artist who is isolated from the bustle and activity of daily life
Great Expectations (1861)
Focuses on the protagonist's lifelong journey
ordinary boy --> gentleman
Class and society
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Key thinker, political philosopher
co-founded the political and economical principles known as Marxism
Predicted the downfall of Capitalism
Notable work: The Communist Manifesto (co-wrote w/ Engels)
What is Marxism?
General name given to Marx's ideas over political, economical and historical aspects
All men and women should have equal rights to wealth
The Communist Manifesto
- outlines the concepts and advantages of communism over capitalism; understanding the structure of society
Mary Ann Evans
Adam Bede (in our packet for rec. readings)
Sciences of Clerical Life
Anne of Green Gables
Alfred Edward Housman was born in Fockbury, Worcestershire,
In 1911 he became Kennedy Professor of Latin in Cambridge
He died in 1936 in Cambridge.
A. E. Housman
1859 (mid-way through the Victorian Age),
The Origin of Species proposed the theory that man actually evolved from a lower species rather than having been created by a higher power.
But by denying creationism with his own theories, Darwin “made room for strictly scientific explanations of all natural phenomena,” and as a result, initiated a “powerful intellectual and spiritual revolution” whose effects last to this day. Its profound impact meant that “nearly every field of social and cultural life was affected by the idea of evolution.”
What is Marxism? (cont.)
“Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!” - Karl Marx,
The Communist Manifesto
Henry David Thoreau/ Ralph Waldo Emerson
"I took the opportunity of being alone in the court-yard, to look at my coarse hands and my common boots." - Charles Dickens,
Realized hygiene and societal responsibilities were essential to the daily life.
Less romantic and less exaggerated than romantic era
Pencil making business for income of family
He and John had to close their school in 1841 Thoreau accepted an offer to stay with neighboring Emerson's family and earn his keep as a handyman while he concentrated on his writing.
As a reflection of God, nature expressed symbolically the spiritual world that worked beyond the physical one. Transcendentalism can be seen as the religious and intellectual expression of American democracy: all men had an equal chance of experiencing and expressing divinity directly, regardless of wealth, social status, or politics.
I Knew A Man By Sight
founding father of the Transcendental Movement
a new kind of spirit to take root in humanity, a spirit fueled by individualism, creativity, and a tireless work ethic.
Nature (1836) Parnassus (1874)
"The Problem" "Give All to Love"
It’s so easy in this day and age to have an inattentive eye, but it’s worth taking the time to train yourself to *really* look.
Because I liked you better
Than suits a man to say,
It irked you, and I promised
To throw the thought away.
To put the world between us
We parted, stiff and dry;
`Good-bye,' said you, `forget me.'
`I will, no fear', said I.
If here, where clover whitens
The dead man's knoll, you pass,
And no tall flower to meet you
Starts in the trefoiled grass,
Halt by the headstone naming
The heart no longer stirred,
And say the lad that loved you
Was one that kept his word.
Alfred Edward Housman was gay.
England, on March 26, 1859
A Shropshire Lad (1896)
Last Poems (1922)
More Poems (1936)
Complete Poems (1939)
Attacks the problems in society
Use of satire
Beginning to have more of a realistic view of life
Have more reasons toward life