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Chapter 4


riley fountain

on 2 October 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 4

1821- Mexico declared independence from Madrid, Spanish authorities struggled to control a vast northern frontier
Juan de Onate led spanish settlers to establish European communities north of Rio Grande
The Pueblo Indians resisted the invasion of colonists, soldiers, and missionaries, an in a major rebellion in 1680, led by El Pope, the native peoples drove the whites out of New Mexico
Concern over French encroachment in the Southeast led Spain to colonize St. Augustine (now Florida) in 1565
California never figured in Spain's plans for the New World
Two servants organized missions to San Diego, Monterey, San Francisco, and Santa Barbara By: Riley Fountain Chapter 4
Experience of Empire
Eighteenth-Century America, 1680-1763 Backcountry- a region stretching approximately 800 miles from western Pennsylvania to Georgia
Great growth through natural increase
Population was becoming more dispersed and heterogeneous
English settlers came in search of religious sanctuary or instant wealth
Newcomers hoped to obtain their own land and become independent farmers
The backcountry was a complex, fluid, sometimes violent society
Native Americans, African Americans, and Europeans all settled in the backcountry
Backcountry residents petitioned for assistance during wars against Indians Backcountry Germans migrate to New World to find religious freedom
Scots-Irish migrate to New World to find freedom and prosperity that they didn't get in Ireland
Scots-Irish made farms on Pennsylvania's western frontier
Henry Melchior Muhlenberg helped German Lutherans through cultural adjustment
Many germans and Scots-Irish settled in the backcountry of Virginia and the Carolinas
Germans stayed wherever they found unclaimed fertile land
Scots-Irish moved so much they got the name as rootless people Germans and Scots-Irish Indians couldn't live close together because of all the diseases they shared
a geographical area where two district cultures interacted with neither holding a clear upper hand, so they pretty much had equal power
Indians' middle ground was an open, dynamic process of creative interaction
imperial competition between France and Great Britain enhanced the Indians' bargaining position
Native Americans didn't want complete isolation from European contact so they relied on white traders to provide metal goods and weapons
Native Americans demanded "respect" when people came to the middle ground Middle Ground "age of reason"
a body of new ideas swept through the salons and universities, altering how educated Europeans thought about God, nature, and society
enlightenment- work of Europe's greatest minds
colonists welcomed experimental science, they defended traditional Christianity
enlightenment thinkers shared basic assumptions
concept of original sin with a much more optimistic view of human nature
the appeal of the Enlightenment was its focus on a search for useful knowledge, idea, and inventions to improve the quality of human life
Americans encouraged their countrymen to apply reason to the solution of social and political problems American Enlightenment Spanish Borderlands Birth of Consumer Society The colonists argued that within their political systems, the governor corresponded to the king and the governor's council to the House of Lords
Colonial assemblies as American reproductions of the House of Commons and expected them to preserve the people's interest against those of the monarch and aristocracy
Most of the mainland colonies had royal governors appointed by the crown
Governors also served as military commanders in each province
Royal governors were advised by a council, usually a body of about 12 wealthy colonists selected by the Board of Trade in London on the recommendation of the governor
"middle class democracies"- societies run by yeomen farmers who exercised independent judgement Governing the Colonies People of the Spanish Borders Spanish outposts in North America
grew slowly Catholic priests and imperial administrators traveled to the northern provinces, but the danger of indian attack and a harsh physical environment discouraged ordinary colonists Immigrants were soldiers in the pay of the empire Spanish males formed relationships with Indian women, fathering mestizos, children of mixed race Encounters with Spanish soldiers,
priests, and traders altered
Native American cultures Southwestern Indians resisted efforts to convert them to Catholicism Benjamin Franklin Absorbed the new cosmopolitan culture philosophe- a person of reason an science, a role that he self-consciously cultivated when he visited England and France in later life Franklin devoted himself to the pursuit of useful knowledge, ideas that would increase the happiness of his fellow americans pushed the Lord aside, making room for the free exercise of human reason his investigation of electricity brought him world fame designed an efficient stove The Acts The Navigation Acts were still in effect, and "enumerated" items such as tobacco had to be landed first at a British port Furs were added to the resticted list in 1722 The White Pines Acts passed in 1711,1722, and 1729 forbade Americans from cutting white pine tress without a license The Molasses Act of 1733 (The Sugar Act) placed a heavy duty on molasses imported from foreign ports the Hat and Felt Act of 1732 and Iron Act of 1750 attempted to limit the production of colonial goods that competed with British exports Crown officials generally
ignored the new laws The emerging consumer society in Britain was creating a new generation of buyers who possessed enough income to purchase American goods, especially sugar and tobacco American began building more English goods than their parents or grandparents had done, giving birth to a consumer revolution
English exports to the the American colonies increased by an astounding 360 percent
Small factories produced certain goods more efficiently and more cheaply than the colonists could
To help Americans purchase manufactured goods, British merchants offered generous credit
Some people lived within their means, but the aggregate American debt continued to grow
Inter coastal trade also increased in the eighteenth century
Approximately 30 percent of the colonists' total tonnage capacity was involved in this "coatwise" commerce
the shifting patterns of trade had immense effects on the development of an American culture
First, the flood of British imports eroded local and regional identities
Commerce helped to "Anglicize" American culture by exposing colonial consumers to a common range of British manufactured goods Profoundly affected the lives of ordinary people
"new birth" in Christ caused men and women of all backgrounds to rethink assumptions about church and state, institutions an society
arrived unexpectedly in Northampton
Edwards accepted the traditional teachings of Calvinism, reminding his people that God had determined their eternal life
Edwards did not possess the dynamic personality to sustain the revival, that role fell to George Whitefield
George was an awesome public speaker
He possessed an almost intuitive sense of how to turn this burgeoning consumer society to his own advantage, ad he embraced the latest merchandising The Great Awakening itinerant preachers, who traveled from settlement to settlement throughout the colonies to spread their message, followed Whitefield's example
Gilbert Tennent, a Scots-Irish Presbyterian who had been educated in the Middle Colonies
His sermon set off a storm of protest from established ministers who were insulted by assertions that they did not understand true religion
Men and women who thronged to hear the itinerants were called "New Lights"
many ministers remained suspicious of the itinerants and their methods
The New Lights founded several important centers of higher learning
Founded Princeton, Dartmouth, Brown, and Rutgers
The Great Awakening also encouraged men and women who had been taught to remain silent before traditional authority figures to speak up, to take an active role in their salvation
Expressive evangelicalism struck a responsive chord among African Americans
Richard Allen, founder of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, reported he owed his freedom in part to a traveling Methodist minister who persuaded Allen's master that slavery was sinful
Evangelical religion was on factor that brought scattered colonists into contact with one another for the first time Evangelical Religion Elected members of the colonial assemblies believed that they had an obligation to preserve colonial liberties
Long series of imperial wars against the French, demanding large public adventures, transformed the small, assemblies into the more professional, legislatures
Alexander Spotswood, attempted to institute a new land program backed by the crowns
Alexander allied himself with the gentry who controlled the House and the Council and became a wealthy man because they rewarded their new friend with large tracts of land
William Shirley had political success in America was connection to people who held high office in Britain
The Board of Trade, the Privy Council that advised the king in London and acted as a court of appeals for the colonies, and Parliament scrutinized court decisions and legislative actions from all 13 mainland colonies Colonial Assemblies King Louis XIV of France had an army of 100,000 well armed troops but he dispatched few of them to the New World
The British settlement possessed a larger and more prosperous population, they were divided into separate governments that sometimes seemed more suspicious of each other than of the French
English colonists came to believe that the French planned to "encircle" them, to confine the English to a narrow strip of land along the Atlantic coast
The French planned constructed forts on the Chicago and Illinois rivers The French Threat King George's War Known in Europe as the War of the Austrian
Succession, in which the colonists scored a
victory over the French New England troops under William Pepperell captured Louisbourg in June 1745, a feat that demonstrated the British colonists could fight and mount effective joint operations The French decided to seize the Ohio Valley before the Virginians could do so Militia companies under a promising young officer, George Washington, constructed Fort Necessity not far from For Duquesne, the plan failed Franklin made the Albany Plan which envisioned the formation of a Grand Council, made up of elected delegates from the colonies, to oversee matters of common defense, western expansion, and Indian affairs It required the support of the separate colonial assemblies, which it didn't get Major General Edward Braddock inspired neither fear nor respect The French remained in firm control of the Ohio Valley Seven Years' War On May 18, 1756 the British officially declared war on the French, a conflict called the French and Indian War in American and the Seven Years' War in Europe William Pitt advanced a new imperial policy based on commercial assumptions To direct the grand campaign, Pitt selected two officers, Jef frey Amherst and James Wolfe The French forts in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes began to fall, Duquesne abandoned late in 1758 Summer of 1759, the French surrendered key forts at Ticonderoga, Crown Point, and Niagara. Quebec fell in September 1759 Only Guadeloupe and Martinique were given back to the French Louisiana went from French control to Spanish control The treaty gave Britain title to Canada, Spanish Florida, and all the land east of the Mississippi River The war forced the colonists to cooperate in an unprecedented scale
It also drew them into closer contact with Britain
War trained a corps of American officers who learned that the British were not invincible
Americans cheered on the British but refused to pay bills
Later incorporated into a gerneral argument justifying parliamentary taxation in America Perceptions of War Rule Britannia? James Thomson understood the hold of empire on the popular imagination of the 18th century
By midcentury they took their political and cultural cues from Great Britain
American hailed Britannia, in 1763 they were victors, the conquerors of the backcountry
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