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HARMS OF LEGAL AND ILLEGAL DRUGS

A presentation exploring the harms on health and society that legal and illegal drugs can cause
by

rebecca root

on 15 November 2012

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Transcript of HARMS OF LEGAL AND ILLEGAL DRUGS

HARMS OF
LEGAL AND ILLEGAL
DRUGS LEGAL ILLEGAL Nicotine Alcohol Prescription
Drugs Features Consequences Prevention Related Theories Health Society Related Theories Consequences Features Related Theories Prevention Consequences Features > licensed medicine regulated by legislation= need a prescription to get it

> Over-the-counter drugs= don't need a prescription

> Usually cost £7.25/ prescription

>Have expiry dates

>many different types to tackle all sorts of illnesses Society Health > Hundreds of different side effects

>Opiods - addiction and abuse

>CNS Drugs- decreased brain function

>Stimulants- anxiety, paranoia, seizures...

>just like any drugs overdoses can cause death
- Whitney Houston
- Heath Ledger
-Courtney Love > Teens take PDs to get high
- more teens abuse PDs than marijuana
- 2008- 2.1million teens aged 12-17 reported abusing P.Ds

> mistakes with P.Ds lead to fatalities in hospitals and clinics
- USA- mistakes with P.Ds cost the gvevrnet over $76billion/year
-4th leading cause of death after cancer, strokes and heart disease

>Black Market

> people believe they are safe > like street drugs they carry side effects

>can become addictive and lead to abuse

>The most common in abuse are opiods, depressants and stimulants >4 ways to prevent (2011 drug abuse prevention plan US):
-Education
-Monitoring
-Proper Medication Disposal
-Enforcement

>means treating depression, lonliness and social isolation with other methods

>research!!! -develop some new drugs please

>Suggestion: ISTOP (Internet System for Tracking Over- Prescribing) >Classical- the benefits of taking prescription drugs outweigh the side effects
- abusing P.Ds is worth it because there is a low chance of getting caught

> Positivist- people with biological or psychological dispositions to addicition or depression may cause P.D abuse >It was synthesised for smoking in 1904

>C10 H14 N2+chemical imperical formula

>Mixed with tabacco in cigarettes

>400 toxic substances+4000 unknown chemical compounds

>2011- discovered it can be as addictive as cocaine and heroine due to stimulants

> In 7 mins blood travels to the brain leading to beta endorphines

>1998-2005+ 1.5% increase in nicotine amounts in cigarettes > 120,000 deaths/ yr due to smoking

> Second hand smoke is cause of over 80% of asthma cases

> 60mg of nicotine will kill you instantly

> Nicotine poisoning contributes to 87% of deaths > Statistics show that smokers are more likely to start smoking marijuana too

>The US spends $75.5 billion on medicene to treat nicotine addiction a year

> > the government introduced a smoking ban in the UK and other parts of the EU 2006/2007

> 2002-07 heart attacks reduced by 2.4%

> Asthma decreased by 20.8%

Ban led to +300,000 quitters

>Hard hitting commercials feature on TV

> Warnings on cigarette packets >Legal A drug

>Depressant drug- slows person down

>Relaxes muscles and feel sleepy

>Misused in UK
-regular drinkers
-people addicted

>10million people are regular drinkers

> 6.4% of addicted people

>UK Costs: Alcohol-related harms & crime accounting +/- £20billion/year

>Increased consumption since 1950 Health Society > PHYSICAL HARMS:

> Ill health

>Wide range of serious health problems

-E.G. Liver & kidney disease, cancer of the mouth and throat, liver, laryngeal, colon and breast cancer, acute and chronic pancreatitis, heart disease, high blood pressure, depression, stroke, fatal alcohol syndrome > 1.2 million incidents of violent crime a year

>1.1 million (2009/2010) of hospital admissions from alcohol misuse

> 6% of all road casualties/driving offences

> Manslaughter due to alcohol-related violence

> Social disturbance

> Breaches of the peace and public disorder

> 40% of domestic violence cases/family offenses are alcohol related

> Sexual assault

> Causes detrimental effect on families and society > Alcohol Physical diseases + Affects to Society= Crime

>Alcohol is legal BUT leads to illegal behavior ‘under the influence of drink’

> Criminological theories:
-Social disorganization
-Strain-Control
-Feminism Ecstasy Features > Developed in 1912 by a pharmaceutical company

> Psychotherapy medication

> 'Party drug'

> synthetic drug with hallucinogenic and stimulant effects.

> Commonly in pills, but also injected (GHB liquid) or taken as crystals.

> Bitter taste. Consequences Health Society SHORT TERM
>Impaired judgement

> Anxiety, tremors and paranoia

>Muscle tension, nausea, teeth clenching and blurred vision, faintness, chills

>Mood swings and convulsion

> Faintness and confusion

LONG TERM

>Brain damage

>Violence and psychosis

>Death > Peer group influence

>Low self-esteem and insecurity

> Dysfunctional social network

>Lack of aspirations

> Can lead to corruption-Organized crime Related Theories >Merton’s theory of anomie

> Sutherland's differential association

> Cohen's subcultural theory

> Becker's rational choice theory

> MDMA users are less prone to crime

> Ecstasy can lead to violence due to hallocinogenic properties

> Becker's economic theory

> Spurious or co-morbid model Opiums
and its Alkaloids Features Prevention Consequences Society Health >Narcotic drug type

> Extracted from natural plants that contain alkaloids like morphine

> Relax the nervous system- sedative and calming

> Can create euphoria

> Can be use as a painkiller

> Used to produce addictive substances like heroin > Sleepiness

> Numb muscles

> Sweating

> Vomiting

> Induces a coma

> Addiction

> Death > Relation to patrimony crimes to finance the drug dependence

> Strong relationship betwen dependence and crime Robert Agnew's Strain Theory- choices?

Rational Choice Deterrence Theory- Pros and Cons? - Routine theory - smoking becomes habit and fits into persons routine CONCLUSION:

> DIFFERENCES:

-Illegal drugs cause more harm to society and to individuals

-Alcohol results in more violence but nicotine causes more deaths

> Legal drugs have less of an affect on crime - affect the individual more than society

-Illegal drugs = more alarming figures

> Illegal drugs have more effects on health and society

> It is mroe liekly that an addict of illegal drugs will commit a crime

- Use of legal drugs affects others and can lead to crime where illegal drugs leads directly to crime and has social implications

SIMILARITIES:

> Both affect individual and society

> Both can lead to addiction

> Legal drug users can end up being illegal drug users

> Gov. interventions = put high taxes and imposed ban on both drug types INTRODUCTION

LEGAL ILLEGAL
alchohol ecstasy
prescription drugs opium
nicotine cannabis
cocaine

>comparing the harms Cannabis Features Health Society Related Theories Consequences > Used as far back as 3000BC

> Religious and medical use for Cannabis

> Scientific name =Cannabis sativa

> Street names= Ganja,' 'Grass,' 'Hashish,' 'Hemp,' 'Marijuana,' 'Pot,' 'Reefer' and Weed

>THC

> 400 compounds

> Recreational drug or as medicine

> The dried leaves and flowers can be smoked or taken orally with food

> Contains 50% - 70% more cancer-causing substances than tobacco. > Rapid heartbeat

> Disorientation

>Lack of physical coordination

>Depression, sleepiness, panic attacks, anxiety

> Bronchitis

>Psychosis

>Deformation of sperm cells

>Decrease of mental functions

>Hereditary defects (pregnant women) > Can cause driver fatalities

>Problems in scholar, professional and personal life

>Peer pressure to try it

> "It helps you to be cooler in your social life"

> Thefts and robberies to get money to buy Cannabis > Differential Association Theory (Sutherland)

>Control Theory (Hirschi) > Further control consumtion

> higher punishments for the production Cocaine
and Crack Features > Was in Coca-Cola- removed it in 1903

> 2008- cocaine was the second most trafficked illegal drug in the world

> Other names: coke, nose candy, white, sniff, flake…

> Extracted from coca leaves

> Was originally developed as a painkiller

> Most often sniffed, it can also be ingested or rubbed into the gums

> Almost impossible to become free of its grip physically and mentally

> Children of cocaine-addicted mothers come into the world as addicts themselves Consequences Health SHORT TERM
> Loss of appetite

> Increased heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, nausea

> Disturbed sleep patterns

> Bizzare, erratic and sometimes violent behaviour

> Intense euphoria, panics and psychosis

> Depression, anxiety and paranoia

LONG TERM:
> Damage to blood vessels of heart and brain

> Infectious diseases, malnutrition

> Auditory and tactile hallucinations

> Sexual problems, reproductive damage and infertility

> Addiction, irritability and delirium Society > Cocaine is the second most trafficked illegal drug in the world

> Many studies explain a relation between cocaine and homicides Features > Crack cocaine is the crystal form of cocaine

> It is heated and smoked

> The most potent form in which cocaine appears

> Riskiest

> Abuser can become addicted after his or her first time trying crack

> Sold at low prices that even teens can afford to buy it Relation to Crime > In US Federal courts in 2007, 5,477 individuals were found guilty of crack cocaine-related crimes.

> The situation is different in Europe. http://www.thedrinkingsurvey.com/results.php
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