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# Computer History Timeline

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## Quentin Cho

on 22 June 2010

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#### Transcript of Computer History Timeline

Computer History Timeline Abacus The abacus can solve addition, subtraction, division, and multipilcation problems with the abacus, although it is often related to the Chinese, the first abacus was used in 300 B.C by the Babylonians. A very old abacus
where pebbles are pushed around to perform mathematical problems A newer abacus
Where the rings on each rod represents the five fingers, and the upper rings represent the 2 hands. A skilled abacus operator can work complex sums of addition and subtraction as fast as a man with a calculator Humans Computers were given their name because they performed work had been assigned to people, Computer was actually a job title given to people who do repetitive calculations. Then they decided to mechanize these tasks. Leonardo Da Vinci drew lots of gear driven calculating machines but never built any... so the first gear driven calculating machine to be built had to be the calculating clock it was built by the German professor Wilhelm Schickard in 1623 but it got little publicity and he died at an soon afterwards despite it's misleading name, it did not tell the time but did calculate sums Blaise Pascal then came he invented the Pascaline at the age of 19 in 1642 it functioned as an aid for his father, who was a tax c0llecter however, it could only add he built 50 but they didn't sell, partially because it wasn't that accurate the Difference Engine in 1822, English mathematician Charles Babbage proposed a steam driven calculating machine that fitted the size of a room
Babbage successfully obtained funding from the government everyone hoped that the difference engine could change English history by eliminating over 1000 numeric errors but it proved too difficult and the cost was way over the budget. And it was eventually abunded after 10 years of hard work and the device was never finished this is what the difference engine would have looked like if it were completed but that wasn't the end of Charles Babbage he decided to work on another project, powered by 6 steam engines and the size of a house The Analytic Engine Jacquard's Loom In 1801 the Frenchman Joseph Marie Jacquard invented a power loom that could base it's weaving on punched wooden cards the loom can weave fabric in a certain pattern Babbage soon realised that punched paper could be used as a storage mechanism but once again, the Analytic Engine remains unbuilt The Hollerith desk the next break-through happened in 1890, America, by Herman Hollerith. it used the punched cards technology from Jacquard's times and was driven by gears. The U.S. Constitution need an automation for collecting census. and offered a prize for an inventer. he created Herman Hollerith converted the previous punched cards from a 'read only' form, to what we call a 'read/write' form. he built the Tabulating Machine Company, which then became the IBM. From then, punched cards technology become more and more
popular and useful. the IBM continued to develop calculators to help with financial accounting
The US military needed a mechanical calculator for scientific computation in wars, to calculate drag, wind, gravity, muzzle velocity... in world war 2, the US military hired people to calculate these sums the first success was the Harvard Mark 1 computer created by Harvard and IBM in 1944 it was the first first programmable digital computer in the US made of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches. however, it weighed 5 tons, had 500 miles of wire, was 8 feet tall and 51 feet long It ran on a 5 horse-power electric motor and kept running for 15 years straight Mark 1 Computer The Mark I operated on numbers that were 23 digits wide. It could add or subtract two of these numbers in three-tenths of a second, multiply them in four seconds, and divide them in ten seconds. Even though the Mark I had three quarters of a million components, it could only store 72 numbers! one of the earliest attempts to build an all electronic digital computer occurred in 1937 by J. V. Atanasoff, a professor of physics and mathematics at Iowa State University By 1941 he and his graduate student, Clifford Berry, had succeeded in building a machine that could solve 29 simultaneous equations with 29 unknowns. However, the machine was not programmable, it lacked a conditional branch, and its design was appropriate for only one type of mathematical problem. It's inventors didn't even bother to preserve the machine and it was dismantled by those who moved into the room where it lay abandoned. The Atanasoff-Berry Computer The Colossus the Colossus was a electronic computing device used by English code-breakers in world war 2 Scientist Alan Turing lead the team of Britains to build the Colossus, their goal to break the German Enigma code. They successfully built the prototype, Colossus Mark 1, which was shown to be working in December 1943 An improved Colossus Mark 2 first worked on 1 June 1944 The Colossus played an important role in the war as well as contributing to the devlopment of computers then in 1965, Konrad Zuse revealed his work. He built a sequence of general purpose computers in Nazi Germany The Z1 built in 1938 The Z2 The Z3 and The Z4 built in 1941 The Z3 was probably the first software controlled, operational, general-purpose, programmable, digital computer. It was however destroyed in a bombing along with Z1 and 2 Z4 luckily survived Z1 ENIAC and filled 20 by 40 foot room, weighed 30 tons, and used more than 18,000 vacuum tubes. The father of the modern day all-electronic digital computers is recognised as ENIAC
(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) ENIAC was built at the University of Pennsylvania in 1945 by professor John Mauchly and the 24 year old J. Presper Eckert But even with 18,000 vacuum tubes, ENIAC could only hold 20 numbers at a time. But sums can be calculated much quicker After ENIAC came computers with names such as ILLIAC JOHNNIAC, MANIAC EDVAC Then in 1948, IBM builds the SSEC (Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator). The computer contains 12,000 tubes. The Whirlwind computer was built at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it was the first computer with a video display of real time data. Designed by Robert Everett and built by Jay Forrester and Perry Crawford. Alan Turing completed the ACE in 1950, at Britain's National Physics Laboratory. Then in 1956, the first hard drive was built by IBM, it cost a total of US\$10oo,ooo and contained 50 twentyfour inch disks. But only had a capacity of 5 MB. in 1954 Gordon Teal makes the first silicon transistor, which turns out to be a real help when computers used transistors instead on tubes. the MITS altair 8800 was made in 1975, it was considered by many to be the first microcomputer computers became more and more popular, more and more faster, more and more common Microsoft In 1975, Paul Allen and Bill Gates created the first version of MICROSOFT BASIC for the Altair they license BASIC to MITS, which Allen then joins as the director of software. Gates forms an informal partnership with MITScalled Micro-soft. Microsoft is officially registered in 1976, 26th April and Allen resigns MITS to join Microsoft in 1977, Microsoft develops FORTRAN, COBOL, and Assembler for the PC Bill Gates then became president and Paul Allen vice president of Microsoft Corp. They developed more platforms for the PC. Windows 1.0 Windows 2.0 1985 Windows 3.0 1990 Windows NT 3.1 1993 Windows for Workgroups 3.11 Windows NT Workstation 3.5 1994 Windows 95 1995 Windows NT Workstation 4.0
1996 Windows 98 1998 Windows 98 Second Edition 1999: Windows Millennium Edition (Windows Me) 2000 Windows 2000 Professional Windows XP 2001 Windows XP Professional Windows XP Home Edition Windows XP 64-bit Edition Windows XP Media Center Edition Windows XP Tablet PC Edition Windows 7 2009 Windows Vista 2006 many say that Microsoft creates a good platform alternately, and that XP is more effective than Vista, and Windows 7 is the best Windows platform yet. 1992 - Office 3.0
1994 - Office 4.0
1994 - Office 4.3
1994 - Office for NT 4.2
1995 - Office 95
1998 - Office 97
1999 - Office 2000
2001 - Office XP
2003 - Office 2003
2007 - Office 2007 Microsoft also made an application for enhance office work, called Microsoft Office. Apple Apple was established on April 1, 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne The Apple 1 was hand-built by Wozniak and had a CPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977 Wayne sold his share of the company to the 2 Steves for US\$800 The Apple II was introduced on April 16, 1977 and came with color graphics and an open architecture. In 1984, Apple launched the Macintosh In 1989, Apple attempted to make a battery-powered portable Macintosh personal computer that held the power of a desktop Macintosh. The Macintosh Portable, which was actually pretty bulky: 17 pounds with a 12 hour battery life. Then, Apple released the PowerBook in 1991, it was 7 pounds and had a 3 hour battery life, and sold a billion dollars worth within the first year. But was fairy successful Later in 1991, Apple created the Macintosh LC2, an affordable, modular, color-capable Macintosh with a 68030 processor. In 1998, Apple finally annouced the arrival of the iMac. in 2003, the iTunes store came out, along with iLife and iWork In January 2006, Apple released the MacBook Pro and became the first Apple computer to use Intel's Core Duo CPU iPhone was introduced in 2007, it has a touchscreen of scratch-resistant glass, with over 200,000 downloadable apps. The iPod touch was also released in the same year. In 1939, Packard and Hewlett established Hewlett-Packard (HP) in Packard's garage with an initial capital investment of US\$538. They actually did a coin toss to decide if the company would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett. Packard won but named the company Hewlett-Packard their first financially successful product was the precision audio oscillator, sold at US\$71.50. Their first Personal Computer was the Hewlett-Packard 9100A in 1968 They introduced the world's first handheld scientific electronic calculator in 1972 (the HP-35), the first handheld programmable in 1974 (the HP-65), the first alphanumeric, programmable, expandable in 1979 (the HP-41C), and the first symbolic and graphing calculator, the HP-28C. In 1958, Jack Kilby successfully demonstrated the first working integrated circuit aka the microchip. the first microchip the later microchip HP introduces it's first computer, HP2116a In 1974 HP develops it's first 4k dynamic random access memory chip (DRAM) based computer In 1980, HP then introduced the HP-85, it had pretty much the keyboard as we do but a much much smaller screen HP's next computer was the hand-held HP-75-c, released in 1982, despite being able to connect to prineres it's tiny screen and sperately placed keys look nothing like the laptops we have In 1983, HP finally introduces the touch-screen PC, it was bulky but still cool at that time HP then releases the Omnibook 300, claiming to be super-portable and weighing 3 pounds with a extended battery life And HP continues to develop lighter, convenient and effective PC's... Different people have different stories and experiences with technology, from this timeline, we learn that technology is constantly developing, and trying to create a faster, lighter, more efficient PC.
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