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Concept of Environmental Flow and Application on Reservoirs Using IHA Software

Assist.Prof.Dr. Serdar GÖNCÜ
by

Serdar Göncü

on 13 October 2012

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Transcript of Concept of Environmental Flow and Application on Reservoirs Using IHA Software

Dam Re-Operation Process IHA needs daily flow data
Insufficient monitoring station amount
Insufficient data intervals (<30 years)
Missing data, gaps
Data QA/QC
To be need change at the Legal regulations Problems !!! Five environmental flow components (EFCs) used in the IHA, and their ecosystem influences (IHA ver 7.1 Manual) According to regulation*, for the sustainment of the natural life downstream the flow must be at least 10 percent of the average of the last ten years flow.
The flows released can be increased when ecological needs arise in the process of the Environmental Impact Assessment
The released flows (the 10%fraction) can be inadequate to sustain the flora and fauna downstream.
The environmental flow amount must be determined by taking the living conditions in the stream into consideration.

ENVIRONMENTAL FLOW POLICY OF TURKEY
(Karayılan, İ., www.suhakki.org, 2010) (DSİ Web Page, www.dsi.gov.tr, 2012) Hydroelectic Power Plants in TURKEY Water
will
not
flow
for
nothing ! THANKS ! Environmental flow components
Monthly low flows
Extreme low flows
High flow pulses
Small floods
Large floods Monthly flows
Zero-flow days
1-3-7-30-90 day minimum
1-3-7-30-90 day maximum
Date of min, max flows
Low-High pulse counts-durations
Rise-Fall Rates
Base flow index
Flow duration curves IHA RESULTS Version 7.1
The Nature Conservancy
An easy-to-use tool for calculating the characteristics of natural and altered hydrologic regimes.
http://conserveonline.org/workspaces/iha
The method and software will work on any type of daily hydrologic data, such as streamflows, river stages, ground water levels, or lake levels.
The power of the IHA method is that it can be used to summarize long periods of daily hydrologic data into a much more manageable series of ecologically relevant hydrologic parameters. IHA Software
(Indicators of Hydrologic Alterations ) Bunn, S. E., and Arthington, A. H. 2002. Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity. Environmental Management 30:492-507. Bunn and Arthington (2002) summarize their review of this literature by highlighting four primary ecological impacts associated with flow alteration:

Because river flow shapes physical habitats such as riffles, pools, and bars in rivers and floodplains, and thereby determines biotic composition, flow alteration can lead to severely modified channel and floodplain habitats;
Aquatic species have evolved life history strategies, such as their timing of reproduction, in direct response to natural flow regimes, which can be desynchronized through flow alteration;
Many species are highly dependent upon lateral and longitudinal hydraulic connectivity, which can be broken through flow alteration; and
The invasion of exotic and introduced species in river systems can be facilitated by flow alteration. Main Ecological Effects Ecological Effects of
Damming Heavily modifies the volume of water flowing downstream

Changes timing, frequency and duration of high and low flows

Alters the natural rates of water level rise and fall during runoff events. Dams have considerable influence on downstream river ecosystems, in many cases extending for hundreds of kilometers below a dam

Changes affect water temperature, chemistry, sediment transport, floodplain vegetation communities, nutrient delivery ,etc.

Dams affect dowstream estuaries, deltas, coastal zones by modifying saltwater intrusion and wedge patterns

Assist.Prof.Dr. Serdar GÖNCÜ

Anadolu University
Environmental Eng. Dept.
EUROPE INBO 2012 Concept of Environmental Flow and Application on Reservoirs Using IHA Software Calca Single Time Period
Analysis






Two Distinct Time Period
Analysis ANALYSIS TYPES FLOW STATIONS USED Why? *Elektrik Piyasasında Üretim Faaliyetinde Bulunmak Üzere Su Kullanım Hakkı Anlaşması İmzalanmasına İlişkin Usul ve Esaslar Hakkında Yönetmelik
(Regulation on methods and guidelines for water use rights agreeements about production activities at the electricity market) 1. Monthly low flows Provide adequate habitat for aquatic Organisms
Maintain suitable water temperatures, dissolved oxygen, and water chemistry
Maintain water table levels in floodplain, soil moisture for plants
Provide drinking water for terrestrial animals
Keep fish and amphibian eggs suspended
Enable fish to move to feeding and spawning areas
Support hyporheic organisms living in saturated sediments 2. Extreme low flows Enable recruitment of certain floodplain plant species
Purge invasive, introduced species from aquatic and riparian communities
Concentrate prey into limited areas to benefit predators
3. High flow pulses Shape physical character of river channel, including pools, riffles
Determine size of streambed substrates, e.g., sand, gravel, cobble
Prevent riparian vegetation from encroaching into channel
Restore normal water quality conditions after prolonged low flows, flushing away waste products, and pollutants
Aerate eggs in spawning gravels, prevent siltation
Maintain suitable salinity conditions in estuaries 4. Small floods May apply to small or large floods:
Provide migration and spawning cues for fish
Trigger new phase in life cycle, i.e., insects
Enable fish to spawn in floodplain, provide nursery area for juvenile fish
Provide new feeding opportunities for fish, waterfowl
Recharge floodplain water table
Maintain diversity in floodplain forest types through prolonged inundation, i.e., different plant species have different tolerances
Control distribution and abundance of plants on floodplain
Deposit nutrients on floodplain
5. Large floods May apply to small or large floods:
Maintain balance of species in aquatic and riparian communities
Create sites for recruitment of colonizing plants
Shape physical habitats of floodplain
Deposit gravel and cobbles in spawning areas
Flush organic materials such as food and woody debris such as habitat structures into channel
Purge invasive, introduced species from aquatic and riparian communities
Disburse seeds and fruits of riparian plants
Drive lateral movement of river channel, forming new habitats, e.g., secondary channels, oxbow lakes
Provide plant seedlings with prolonged access to soil moisture
i.e. 2-10yr events i.e., >10-yr events Results Results Results Results Assist.Prof.Dr. Serdar Göncü
Anadolu University/TURKEY
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