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Mustard Gas Pres - Chem

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by

Mikeesh Gupta

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of Mustard Gas Pres - Chem

The Organic Which Changed the Face of The War: Past Present Future Properties
and
Significance Ethics Societal views Conclusion Past Present Future Physical and Chemical Properties Biological and Chemical Significance Scientific Significance Ethics,
Society & Conclusion MUSTARD GAS The synthesis of mustard gas was first reported by Victor Meyer in 1886. Early evidence points out Dr.Nernst, a German professor, created the poison for use in WW1... As such, Mustard Gas was introduced as a chemcial weapon in WW1 by the German army against British soldiers near Ypres (thus the nick name Yperite) in July 1917. Also known as Yperite Mustard gas had caused 1,250,000 gas casualties in the war; however, these figures do not take into account the number of men who died from poison gas related injuries years after the end of the war... From Permanent Blindness... Too chocking on your own breath forever... Too death... ... Mustard gas was disastrous during and after the war In 1925, any chemical weapons known too cause serious bodily harm was banned for use by the Geneva Convention This also meant product control on any substances which contribute to the creation of these chemicals; for example, certain dyes contain thiodiglycol, a precursor for mustard gas However, this did not mean Countries could not stock pile the chemical... There has been multiple accounts of use of the poison post WW1; for example, it was once again used by the Germans against the Soviet Union in WW2. The most recent known mustard gas incident was Iraq's attack against the Kurdish residents of Halabja, in Northern Iraq with the poison and other nerve agents in 1988. Aftermath pictures caused shock during the negotiations in Geneva on the Chemical Weapons Convention There has been no other CONFIRMED mustard gas attacks since the Iraq incident. Any production in chemical weapons including Mustard gas is constantly in investigation, and being shut down. No way of really telling the future! Mustard Gas is being controlled and will hopefully stay this way. There is no way of telling the future, but it is always likely that mustard gas could come back in conflict as it has in the past. Hopefully it can be taken more seriously than this Mustard gas was dispersed as an aerosol in a mixture with other chemicals in WW1, giving it a yellow-brown color and a distinctive odor. It was also dispersed as aerial bombs, land mines, mortar rounds, artillery shells, and rockets; the poison had an intended use of incapacitation, only 1% of it was lethal. Masks were ineffective because the poison absorbed into the skin Mustard gas was so powerful that only small amounts had to be added to high explosive shells to be effective. Once in the soil, mustard gas remained active for several weeks. General Physical & Chemical Properties: Molecular weight 159.1
Specific gravity 1.2741 at 20°C/4°C (liquid)
1.338 at 13°C (solid)
Melting point 13°C to 14°C
Boiling point 215°C to 217°C
Log Kow 2.41
Water solubility 0.000684 g/L at 25°C
Vapor pressure 0.11 mm Hg at 25°C
Vapor density relative to air 5.4
*Distinctive garlic smell* Pre-WW1 and after, mustard gas had no significant biological advantage. To re-illiterate, mustard gas' primary significance was to limit biological functions of the enemy during the war. Symptoms included, but are not limited to: - Blistering
- Blindness
- Throat clenching
- Cancer
- Death
- Organ failure Chemically, mustard gas was a break through. When the poison was re purposed for war, it was considered to be the ideal chemical weapon. It was near odorless, caused great amounts of pain and did its job of incapacitating the enemy. Furthermore, Mustard gas is an alkylating agent, meaning its chemicals destroy DNA & cells and liquefy tissue. In essence, mustard gas kills tissue and membranes in the areas it touches! What made it even more unique was that mustard gas was not always used as a 'gas'; it also came in the form of a liquid or solid. Here is a picture of the mustard gas molecule (C4H8Cl2S) There is no large scientific significance of mustard gas in current society; however, in 1917 it was considered a genius scientific discovery for its warfare use. As such, its creation was solely for the use of harm and war, it has been yet to be used for a beneficial science experiment. Chemistry Tic Tac Toe- TAC
by Mikeesh Gupta
Ms. Rymal
17/10/2012 Clearly, it can be seen that ethically, mustard gas is a heinous chemical; this is due to the only fact that it was used for warfare. By looking at these pictures, one could just see how it could effect an individuals life: Looking at this, anybody could disagree with the creation of this chemical As it is now, mustard gas is known as a lethal poison to be avoided at all cost. However in 1917-1918, it was also known to be a 'fear'. An article from an early news paper goes onto explain the effects of mustard gas to the public, giving gruesome details so that it almost seems like it's trying to scare them. Back then, it could be imagined societal views of mustard gas was fearful, and hated for all its crime and hurt. As such the speculated societal view of mustard gas is that it was feared more than cautioned, whereas it is the opposite today Article Source: http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=FA0D16F73B5F1B7A93C5A9178CD85F4C8185F9 Mustard gas (Yperite) is a dangerous chemical which has proven to be lethal on more than one occasion. Its development by Victor Meyer in 1886 has led to no significant scientific breakthrough, but had indeed changed the face of WW1 and chemical warfare in general. In conclusion, Mustard gas should and is not be taken lightly in today's society, and will always be remembered as the chemical which changed warfare today. Works Cited: *WARNING: The following contains graphic images which may offend some viewers* Sources: http://students.cis.uab.edu/akmiles/historyofmustardgas.html
http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=FA0D16F73B5F1B7A93C5A9178CD85F4C8185F9 Image Sources:
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWmustard.htm
http://www.howitworksdaily.com/history/what-was-mustard-gas/
http://science.howstuffworks.com/mustard-gas3.htm
Image Sources: http://www.patriotfiles.com/gallery/showphoto.php?photo=1540
http://www.flickr.com/photos/jonspence/5174852937
http://www.tpyf-wales.com/index.php?lang=en
http://students.cis.uab.edu/akmiles/historyofmustardgas.html Source: http://www.opcw.org/news-publications/publications/history-of-the-chemical-weapons-convention/ Source: http://www.opcw.org/news-publications/publications/history-of-the-chemical-weapons-convention/ Image Source: http://www.flickriver.com/photos/14531705@N00/5984566729/ Sources: http://students.cis.uab.edu/akmiles/historyofmustardgas.html
http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/twelfth/profiles/MustardGas.pdf Graph Source: http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/twelfth/profiles/MustardGas.pdf Source: http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/chemical/mustardg.htm Sources:
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/poison_gas_and_world_war_one.htm
http://science.howstuffworks.com/mustard-gas3.htm Image Source: http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/4309?e=averill_1.0-ch24_s04
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