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Nucleic Acids

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Nikki Sun

on 20 September 2013

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Transcript of Nucleic Acids

When a phosphate attaches to a nucleoside a nucleotide is formed
nucleosides are composed of a nitrogenous base and a sugar
Phosphates link nucleosides together through phosphodiester linkage
Phosphodiester Bond - a phosphate group at position 5 in the pentose sugar of one nucleotide bonds to the hydroxyl group at position 3 in the pentose sugar of the next nucleotide
Nucleic Acids
And the Transmitting of Hereditary Information

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
What are Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids
are complex organic substances that are made from nucleotide chains

DNA provides direction for its own replication
Also directs RNA synthesis
DNA holds information for programming cells
However, not directly involved in the cell operations
Nitrogenous Bases: Cytosine (C), Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T)
Overview of DNA:
Two types of Nucleic Acids:
RNA Controls protein synthesis
Messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis is directed by DNA
mRNA then interacts with protein synthesizing machinery to create polypeptides
Polypeptides then fold into proteins
RNA interacts with ribosomes to synthesize proteins
Nitrogenous Bases: Cytosine (C), Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Uracil (U)
Overview of RNA:
Flow Chart
Phosphate group
Nitrogenous Base
Nucleic Acid (DNA)
Phosphate Group Overview
Phosphate, an inorganic chemical, is a salt of phosphoric acid
It is comprised of one phosphorus and 4 oxygen atoms
Has an overall negative charge
Written as PO
Phosphates in DNA Construction
Nitrogenous Bases are Nitrogen-bearing compounds with chemical properties of bases
Has two major types
Purines are the larger base of the two
Structure: a 6-membered ring fused to a 5-membered ring
Adenine, Guanine
Nitrogenous Bases Overview
Pyrimidines are the smaller of the two main types of bases
Structure: 6-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil
Sugars are any monosaccharide or disaccharide, used especially by organisms to store energy
There are two types of sugars used in Nucleic Acid construction:
Sugars are noted in diagrams with a prime ( ' )
Example: 2nd Carbon in sugar ring = 2'
Overview of Sugars
Two Types
Ribose is a pentose (5 carbon) sugar used in nucleotides of RNA
Structure: C H O
Ribose is a monosaccharide with a linear structure
Deoxyribose is a pentose sugar used in nucleotides of DNA
Structure: Deoxyribose is a monosaccharide identical to Ribose EXCEPT:
Deoxyribose lacks an oxygen atom on 2nd carbon ring
Nucleotides are the monomers that make up polynucleotides
Structure: composed of 3 parts
a nitrogenous base, 5 carbon sugar (pentose), and a phosphate group
Attaches to other nucleotides through phosphodiester linkage
Nucleotide Overview
Polynucleotides are the macromolecules of Nucleic Acids existing as polymers
Structure: A phosphate group of nucleotides attach to 5' Carbon of one nucleotide
On other end, a hydroxyl group attaches on to the 3' Carbon of the nucleotide to form a polymer chain
Two Polynucleotides spiral in an antiparallel way to form a Double Helix
Polynucleotides Overview
Flow Chart of the DNA

Construction process

The 2 sugar-phosphate backbones are on the outside of helix, in which the backbones run in opposite 5' -> 3' directions from each other (anti-parallel)
Nitrogenous bases are in the interior of helix
Polynucleotides - held together by:
Hydrogen bonds between paired bases
Van der Waals interactions between the stacked bases
Complementary bases
Adenine (A) --> Thymine (T)
Guanine (G) --> Cytosine (C)

Usually single-stranded
Nitrogenous Bases: Cytosine,
Adenine, Guanine, Uracil
Uracil (U) --> Adenine
Cytosine (C) --> Guanine (G)

DNA Double Helix - from 2 Polynucleotides
Protein Synthesis
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Full transcript