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Abortion

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Kristin Stockton

on 3 June 2015

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Transcript of Abortion

President Obama's stance on Abortion
Abortion
History of Abortion
- Has been practiced in many societies throughout history
- Aristotle argued abortion was necessary to backup contraception
- In early Roman society, abortions were allowed but husbands decided whether the wife would get one


The Medical Side
Since 1973 abortion has been one of the most common surgical procedures in the United States
Conclusion
The abortion debate
Pro-life Supporters: Individual who believes that abortion should be illegal or strictly regulated by the government

Pro-choice Supporters: Individual who believes the abortion decision should be left up to the woman and not regulated by the government (Carroll 366)
In western societies...
- Throughout most of Western history, religion determined attitudes toward abortion
- Jewish and Christian followers generally condemn abortion
Medical Abortion
Even though abortion was banned and frowned upon, it is thought to still have been a common practice. The Michigan Board of Health estimates that 1/3 of all pregnancies in 1878 were aborted (Carroll 366)
Facts about unwanted pregnancy
52% of unintended pregnancies occur in the 11% of women who don't use contraception

Women who are young, unmarried, poor, and/or are members of racial/ethnic minorities have higher rates of unintended pregnancy
In 1965, all 50 states banned abortions
Some states had exceptions for instances of rape, incest, and risk of death for the mother
Implications for future U.S. public policy
Legality In US: Federal and State
Roe v. Wade
In 1973 the US Supreme Court ruled that women have the right to remove an unwanted pregnancy
"After hearing the case, the Supreme Court ruled that Americans' right to privacy included the right of a woman to decide whether to have children, and the right of a woman and her doctor to make that decision without state interference."
-Pro-Choice.org


Abortion has been legal in the United states (officially) since 1973, from the decision made by the Supreme Court in
Roe v. Wade,
though the states have the power to restrict it.
Supreme court decision in
Gonzales v. Carhart
(2007)

upheld
Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act
that was passed in 2003, making partial-birth abortion illegal nationwide.
Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113, 154 (1973)
The Future of Abortion
-Declining number of hospitals to give abortions suggests a decline in demand (United States)
-National Abortion Federation's Access Initiative Project to provide more training and better facilities to increase access to abortion


New Mexico Bill
- The newly proposed bill would criminalize abortions resulting from rape
-The fetus is considered evidence to the crime
- Disposing evidence of a crime is punishable by up to 3 years in jail

Current Social Beliefs
- 53% of Americans identify themselves as "Pro-Choice though only 40% of Americans believe in abortion for any reason. (nyu.edu)

- 53% of Americans believe that abortion is morally wrong. (nyu.edu)
References
- Carroll, J. L. (2012). Sexuality now: embracing diversity (4th ed., Instructor's ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

- Dionisio, L., Evans, C., O'Connell, P., Varshisky, A., & Walter, W. (n.d.). A Political, Public & Moral Look at Abortion. A Political, Public & Moral Look at Abortion. Retrieved November 17, 2013, from http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jackson/social.issues/papers/AbortGrI.html

- New Barna Study Explores Current Views on Abortion - Barna Group. (2010, June 14). New Barna Study Explores Current Views on Abortion - Barna Group. Retrieved November 17, 2013, from https://www.barna.org/culture-articles/394-new-barna-study-explores-current-views-on-abortion-

Abortion: Which Method is Right for Me?. (n.d.). PregnancyOptions.info: A Workbook of Options including Abortion, Adoption and Birth.. Retrieved November 18, 2013, from http://www.pregnancyoptions.info/whichmethod.htm


Study of 1,001 Americans View on the Legality of Abortion
- 34% Wanted it Legal in most cases
- 23% Wanted it Illegal in most cases
- 15% Wanted it Legal in all cases
- 19% Wanted it Illegal in all cases
- 9% Answered 'Not-Sure'

- 78% of Evangelical Christians believed it should be illegal in all or most cases
- 72% of Atheists or Agnostics believed it should be legal in all or most cases

- Groups most resistant to abortion were those who reside in the South, Political Conservatives, Mosaics (Ages 18-25), and Republicans

*Statistics from Barna.org
In contrast, socially and culturally America is growing to accept abortion for some or all reasons, though the country is almost divided in half on the issue. Beliefs seem to stem mainly from political or religious affiliation and it's within these groups where there are large majorities favoring one side or the other.
Self-Induced Miscarriage Methods
(Not Recommended)
These methods are highly and completely unrecommended -- posing serious detriment to the carrying females health, possibly resulting in death. These detrimental methods are performed by a very small percentage of the public, usually by the misinformed.
Medical Abortions refer to using a dosing of pills to induce an abortion. This method is usually performed over a period of a few days to a few weeks and consists of the patient taking the first pill at the clinic and a second pill taken a number of days afterward, either at the clinic or at home. There are two methods used.
Mifepristone & Misoprostol
Methotrexate & Misoprostol
Methotrexate was the first method of medical abortion and was created in the United States. It's sometimes a pill, but usually an injection that stops embryonic cell growth. It is also used to stop a ectopic (tubular) pregnancy. A dosing of Misoprostol is usually followed within 4-7 days afterward. Sometimes 2 or 3 extra doses of Misoprostol are needed to complete the abortion. This method has become limited within abortion clinics today.
Mifepristone is a medication produced in France that has now become the main method of medical abortions. Mifepristone is a medication in pill form that interferes with the body's ability to use progesterone, which is a hormone that is needed for the pregnancy to grow. This is achieved by the uterine wall as well as the pregnancy to detach from the walls of the uterus. A dosing of Mifepristione is first taken at the clinic, followed by a dose of Misoprostol a day or two later either at the clinic or at home. This method is 92-96% effective.
Misoprostol
Misoprostol is a medication taken orally or placed in the vagina and may be used at home or at the clinic. Misoprostol causes the uterus to empty itself from induced bleeding and cramping which may take several hours to a day or two to start.
*Information found at Pregnancyoptions.info
Also called a Vacuum Aspiration, is a method where a doctor or clinician numbs the cervix with an anesthetic and then dilates the opening of the cervix and inserts a small tube. The pregnancy is then removed by suction.
Success Rates
This method is 99% effective when performed by trained physicians/clinicians with little to no risk of injury or infection.
Surgical Abortion
What is Surgical Abortion?
Alternative Methods Used (May seem crude but are used!!)
- Herbal Abortion - In which one consumes herbs such as parsley along with high dosages of Vitamin C in order to induce menstrual bleeding leading to possible miscarriage.
- Menstrual Extraction - Involves using a device made in the early 1970's in which a pregnancy, or even an early period, could be removed. Extremely dangerous and little is professionally known about this method.
- Belly Abuse - Different methods have been used for hundreds of years to induce miscarriage by causing physical abuse to the abdominal area of a female, either from a third party or the female herself. Methods include, but aren't limited to belly massage, belly punching, belly flopping, and constricting the belly.
- Physical Exertion - This method doesn't involve actual contact with the fetus, but to exert so much physical force that a miscarriage is induced, usually through heavy lifting of objects or weightlifting.
*ALL ARE EXTREMELY DANGEROUS
*Information found at Pregnancyoptions.info

"Viability"
one source of controversy in the current law is the debate of when a fetus should be considered as a
life,
or when it is "viable"
In
Roe v. Wade
, viability defined as "potentially able to live outside the mother's womb, albeit with artificial aid. Viability is usually placed at about seven months (28 weeks) but may occur earlier, even at 24 weeks."
Advances in medical technology since decision have made it possible for a fetus to survive outside of womb at 24 weeks, complicating interpretations of law.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion_in_the_United_States#Current_legal_situation
410 U.S. 113,93 S. Ct. 705,35 L. Ed. 2d 147,1973 U.S.
State Laws and Restrictions
Colorado in 2008 attempted to ban abortion by means of a state amendment, which was on the November ballot. The amendment was not passed from 73% voted against. A similar amendment was put on the ballot in 2010 and again failed: 70% voted against
Mississippi attempted a similar move in 2011, which also intended to ban all forms of contraception. amendment failed by a vote of around 58% voting no.
From Guttmacher Institute: "39 states require an abortion to be performed by a licensed physician, 20 states require an abortion to be performed in a hospital after a specified point in the pregnancy, and 18 states require the involvement of a second physician after a specified point"
17 States have mandatory forms of counseling for women before abortion that include the "fetuses ability to feel pain", the risk of breast cancer from the procedure, and potential mental health consequences from the procedure.
Denver Post, "Amendment 48—Definition of a Person Election Results," 2008
Associated Press, "Mississippi County Vote Results," Nov 9, 2011
http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_OAL.pdf
Laws of Other Countries
Canada
1988 Canada Supreme court ruled existing abortion restrictions as unconstitutional
Abortion legal at any stage of pregnancy
"Provincial" Health insurance plans include cost of abortions performed in Hospitals
Mexico
Mexico City first to legalize abortion within first trimester in 2007
Was challenged by Catholic Church, but Supreme Court of Mexico voted to uphold it in 2008
Abortion legality/access varies by region/state in most of Mexico
Russia
"Russia reportedly leads the world in the total number of abortions performed each year, which currently exceeds the country’s annual number of live births. Abortion is freely available during the first 12 weeks of gestation as well as at any point during the pregnancy in cases involving a risk to the life or health of the mother or severe fetal abnormalities. Since 2003, abortion has also been legal between the 12th and 22nd weeks of pregnancy on certain social grounds, including imprisonment, rape, or spousal disability or death."
http://www.pewforum.org/2008/09/30/abortion-laws-around-the-world/
Great Brittain
Abortion Act of 1967, "broadly interpreted" today, allows relatively free access to abortion within first 24 weeks of pregnancy, as long as it is approved by two doctors/physicians for a variety of reasons. In instances where there is threat to health this approval is not necessary
Parliament is considering removing the "two-doctor" restriction
China
Freely accessible to most in China, with no time limits set for procedure
"Although sex-selective abortion is prohibited, critics say that China’s one-child-per-family policy encourages the widespread abortion of female fetuses by couples intent on having a son. Today in China there are an estimated 120 boys born for every 100 girls."
http://www.pewforum.org/2008/09/30/abortion-laws-around-the-world/
One-child law is not as strictly enforced in current times, though some groups have criticized the accessibility of abortion procedures as being a means of population control.
Freely accessible to most in China, with no time limits set for procedure
"Although sex-selective abortion is prohibited, critics say that China’s one-child-per-family policy encourages the widespread abortion of female fetuses by couples intent on having a son. Today in China there are an estimated 120 boys born for every 100 girls."
http://www.pewforum.org/2008/09/30/abortion-laws-around-the-world/
One-child law is not as strictly enforced in current times, though some groups have criticized the accessibility of abortion procedures as being a means of population control.
Reasons/Purpose for Abortion

*Inability to care for the for the baby:
- Financial reasons
-Partner or relationship issues/family
-School and work issues
* Medical reasons:
-Complications with the pregnancy
-Genetic reasons
- History of psychiatric problems
-Risks for retardation/deformity
South Africa
Abortion has been accessible for first trimester without restriction since 1996, for reasons of risk to physical or mental health, compromise of social or economic status, or if pregnancy is resultant of incest or rape, and beyond first trimester if pregnancy is life-threatening
2008: South African Parliament voted to ease restrictions in order to establish 24-hour clinics and allow nurses to perform procedure
*Getting rid of unwanted pregnancy:
-Victims of rape
- Population control
-Strong religious and moral background
*To young:
-Persuaded to have one
-Blaming pregnancy on another person
Brazil
"Abortion is legal in Brazil only in cases of rape or incest or when the mother’s life is in danger. Under federal regulation, hospitals require a formal determination that a pregnancy has resulted from rape or incest before performing an abortion. Many women in Brazil illegally use the drug Cytotec to induce miscarriage, and the government estimates that more than 200,000 Brazilian women are hospitalized annually as a result of botched abortions."
http://www.pewforum.org/2008/09/30/abortion-laws-around-the-world/
All references for this slide from:
http://www.pewforum.org/2008/09/30/abortion-laws-around-the-world/
Other peoples opinions play a huge role in abortion, including the partner; 60% reported that family, friend, and role models helped them decided to get an abortion.
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