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Katherine Greene

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Transcript of Comps!

August 2015
Cynthia L. Selfe
Stuart A. Selber
Barbara Warnick
James E. Porter
Narrative/CW Pedagogy
Research Methods
Technology and Literacy in the Twenty-First Century: The Importance of Paying Attention
Multiliteracies for a Digital Age
Rhetoric online: Persuasion and politics on the World Wide Web ~ Online Rhetoric: A Medium Theory Approach Paying Attention
Rhetoric in (as) a Digital Economy
(From Rhetorics and Technology)
Jeff Rice
The Rhetoric of Cool
Composition Studies and New Media
Colin Brooke
(in Lingua Fracta: Toward a Rhetoric of New Media)
eds. Heidi McKee & Danielle DeVoss
Digital Writing Research ~ Technologies, Methodologies,
and Ethical Issues**
eds. Mesa Kirsch & Patricia A. Sullivan
Methods and Methodology in Composition Research***
James Porter & Heidi McKee
Ethics of Digital Writing Research: A Rhetorical Approach
Gunther Kress
Gains and losses: New forms of texts, knowledge,
and learning
Paul Prior
Moving Multimodality beyond the binaries: A response to Gunther Kress’ ‘Gains and Losses’
Anne Frances Wysocki
Awaywithwords: On the possibilities in unavailable design
Wendy Bishop
I-Witnessing in Composition: Turning Ethnographic Data into Narrative
Carl Bereiter & Marlene Scardamalia
The Psychology of Written Composition
James Berlin
Poststructuralism, Cultural Studies,
and the Composition Classroom:
Postmodern Theory in Practice
Claire Laure
Contending with Terms:
“Multimodal” and “Multimedia”
in the Academic
and Public Spheres
Key Points
Key Points
The world is multimodal: critical to explore the world of affordances because we are in a time of rapid change (social, economic, political, technical), which is reorganizing the way we use modes and media.
+ We should be teaching and using multiple modes to communicate (not modes in isolation) > framing or chuncking
+ Different modes have different affordances
+ Recognize and act on the awareness of these affordances (pedagogically and politically)

Considers the constraints that Kress puts on word and image
- binary:
image and word: put in opposition
+ Why do we have the
we do have (how we use space and why)
use existing tools and use them in new ways > digital allow us to do things we couldn’t do before?
+Why some materials are not considered
> example of water as a weapon (skirts the constraints put on water)
+ Constrained to place and time
encourage rhetorical focus in our teaching
argues for a focus on the practices > how humans shape the materials

Laure argues that often the words multimodal and multimedia often are used interchangeably, but they actually have different meanings. The different meanings are tied the the focus of the audience, which most often uses the term. Multimodal is mostly used by academics who are focused on the process of creating something. The term refers to the modes of communications: sight, sound, visual, and verbal (the abstract). Yet, multimedia if mostly used by professionals outside the academy, who are focused on the product. The term is referred to the means of making something: computers, video, audio, etc. The terms share the values of the different communities, and she calls for instructors to use both terms so they can help students effectively communicate the importance of students’ work to those inside and outside the classroom.

Brooke argues that the canons have been traditionally thought of as static categories of production and need to be revisited because these are dynamic and evolve (or should be thought of as evolving) as technology evolves > “practiced in different ways”> cannons have been neglected, or looked at individually
“ecologies are vast, hybrid systems of intertwined elements, systems where small changes can have unforeseen consequences that ripple far beyond their immediate implications.”
Key Points
Key Points
Reframe the Canons as Ecologies (broader scope, constant motion)
not a way to say contextual
benefit ecologies are a conceptual metaphor that focuses our attention on a temporarily finite set of practices that doesn’t fix them in place > not stable
ecology of invention would treat it at the level of generalizable activity (see below)
we both construct and are constrained by these terms (ecologies)
drawback would be that ecologies would be too expansive, becoming a backdrop “everything that happens” (45)
ecologies of practice -
explicit combinations of ecology of code to produce “particular discursive” effect
ecology of code -
names concrete terms - choice of medium (or media)
ecology of culture (broadest scale) -
plural - relationships cultural, national, global overlays with Burke > positive, dialectic and ultimate terms (only one at a time) > relationship between the three as a combination to produce action
Trackbacks example
Invention -
linking to a site invites response from audience, but also provides new information to that site
Arrangement -
ways to map out the relationships between sites
Style -
more cooperative (than an insularly online journal) > not style in terms of diction >openness and interaction
Memory -
visible and archivable
Delivery -
process of circulation
Makes the argument that there is a connection between cool and digital writing grounded in historic and educational narratives. He says students have changed and argues that the writing instructors should see students as “media beings” who work across all areas of media to compose, not just in textual spaces. He also reiterates the argument that technology can’t be used simply to continue doing current-traditional work (or print work) but that technology affords different possibilities for writers (often draws from music > jazz and hip hop)
The story of comp studies and cool
cool to be normal vs. cool to be abnormal (rebellious) > means everything and nothing > advertising/consumerism
what exactly is the relationship between cool and school/writing? > address rhetorical demand in an electronic space
1963 the beginning of composition and cool narratives > rhetoric of cool is to give a context to new practices in composition: appropriate, juxtaposition, non-linearity
The principal that rhetorical meaning is not stable but instead fluid and moving
Association _ Meaning becomes slippery and one symbol could represent more than one meaning. Connect ideas by association > Handbook assignment > not just one mean, uses all of them, uses the tension to make meaning
borrowing to make new meaning > our daily actions with media shape, simplicity and explicit, our understanding of rhetorical production > We appropriate to gain ideas and insight from a variety of situation and reflect this in writing
writer as dj or mixer > connection to identity > alter egos
combining to make new meaning > extends sense and observations outside of self > connections to self and levels of expression (DJ remixed)
*concern that computers are being asked to do the old of old technology (retrieval vs. discovery)
Hyper text sees connection where liner text may not
Sophists sense of meaning > not meaning as singular,
combining to make new meaning > exchange of signifiers without concern for referentiality > manipulative practice?
hyper-text non linear meaning (overlapping threads)
here’s where I feel Rice’s ideas start to overlap > involves chora and communtation
using images to make meaning (i.e. No room for square) > we don’t ever ask our students to compose only in images, they are reserved for analysis or to be written about.
technology allows use to manipulate images to make arguments
argues that digital technology impacts the ways we write, what we write, and how we teach writing. Asks how do digital technologies effect our research: questions, sites, methodologies, ethics, and conclusions. Articles present methodological or ethical approaches to digital writing research. As technologies evolve so should our understanding of ethics, research practices, and methodologies. Keep discussing.

Define digital writing research: “research that focuses on a) computer-generates, computer-based, or computer-delivers documents, b) computer-based, text-production practices (and we employ text broadly here, to include multimedia artifacts); and/or c) on the interactions of people who use digital technologies to communicate” (3)

Key Points
Part I: Researching Digital Communities
IRB article (Banks & Eble)> young, gay male blog > issues of private vs. public space, human vs. text
triangulation (Pew) looked at other articles and reviewed for triangulation > all but one had it
Part II: Researching Global Citizens & Transnational Institutions
Nepalese participants/co-authors > double check intent > cultural differences in communication
Russian online community: Technology expert, quasi- participant, researcher > ethics? > supporting the community (i.e. making possible) the community he was studying
Part III: Researching the Activity of Writing
Addresses the use of technology in the research process and concerns of print technology adapted to research digital spaces (i.e. time-use diaries)
screen capture to study more fully the writing process (human vs. text)
Part IV: Researching Digital Texts and Multimodal Spaces
(Blythe) digital artifacts are less stable, blur relationship between author and audience, and incorporate multimedia
coding print-based texts adapt for digital-texts (how?)
research approaches for studying visual texts
Part V: Researching the Research Process and Research Reports
Ecological dimensions of online environment
Technological research + Feminist research
Citations as an act of collaborative knowledge making
Difficult question with indefinite answers > suggestions > adapt specific existing methods to the specific rhetorical situation (know relationships)
Authors say
“research is a discourse”
> entails an act of writing, and research is not only the medium used for discoveries (one way we search for “it” >answers).

raise questions about our methodological diversity and bring up issues that united and separate us > individual contributors critically examine their own work

> technique of gathering vs. methodology > underlying theory

Key Points
Selfe argues that the definition of technological literacy is too narrow and incomplete. There is the assumption that technological literacy improve lives, thus improving the country. She notes that government, business, education, parents, and ideology all play roles in technological literacy. Students need a critical awareness of technology. Suggests critical technological literacy, which includes reflective practice and awareness of technology as a social and cultural phenomenon.
Whose responsibility is it to teach technological literacy?

How do we become critically aware/teach students to become critic aware?

What does it mean to be critically aware of technology?
Part I: A new literacy and its agenda
+ The link > technology and its relationship to technological literacy > being literate in technology improves your life > improves the countries’ interests
+ The problem > this link amplifies the current inequalities in education and society (7)
belief in progress > computers represent the hope for progress pessimism > computers are isolating

Part II: Roles
Role of the Government
> provide leadership and focus on technology as the lifeblood of what will keep America a leader in its industrial and political efforts domestic and abroad.
Role of Education
> prepare students for a more technology driven society > “act as venue instruction” (64)
Role of Business and Industry
> push (“provide energy and pressure” (86)) technology to improve profits by creating the demand for technology > fuel the demand
Role of Parents
> provide technology to improve their children’s futures > Good parent provides technology vs. bad parent does not (99; 105) > responsibility/duty for success in school
Role of Ideology
> Science + Technology = progress (115); Technology + Democracy (capitalism) = Progress (116); Technology + Education = Progress (119) > “science as a progressive force in society” > link (115).

Part III: Future and our responsibility: Sites and plans for action and change
+ Paying attention > Transform technological literacy to critical technological literacy > “suggesting reflective awareness of the social and cultural phenomena (reading, writing, and communication) (148)
+ Working for change > collaboration with teachers and professional organization to address this issue technology becomes dangerous when it disappears into the background (160). > pay attention
Key Points
Like Selfe, Selber argues for a critical awareness of technology use, which he calls a Postcritical Stance. Likewise he echos Selfe's concerns about the definition of literacy (12-14). He presents three types of literacy (functional, critical, and rhetorical. He presents requirements of change, it must take place on many levels (think interlaided circles). Fights against the claim that computers have created numbers positive changes in higher education, because it gives computers autonomy they don’t have and he sees this as having potential to ensure the status quo.
Functional Literacy: Computers as Tools, Students as Effective Users of Technology
> computer as tools: “implicated users in the process of creating societal change by implying a human-computer dyad and a self-conscious relationship that is task oriented” (43).
Students as users:
A literate student understands the social conventions that help determine computer use (51)
effective employment: Reasons critical for teachers of writing: 1) reach educational goals > control technological resources; 2) evaluate efficiency of computers > understand the ways writing activities are organized in online environments; 3) compete for work in digital age >demonstrate technological proficiency; 4) enact change > access to language of the powerful including discourse of technology (35)

Critical Literacy: Computers as Cultural Artifacts, Students as Informed Questioners of Technology
> computers as cultural artifacts > recognize and question the politics of computers (75) > attention to political, social, and psychological assumptions embodied in computers and the unintended in design (86)
Students as questioners of technology:
“This situation becomes more disturbing when one realizes that computers often exacerbate the very inequalities that computers are supposed to ameliorate” (81)
informed critique: 1) recognize and 2) challenge

Rhetorical Literacy: Computers as Hypertextual Media, Students as Reflective Producers of Technology
> computers as hypertextual media >more demands on the writer > switch from writer to designer (168)
Students as producers of technology:
“To provide students with the theoretical lens needed for such considerations (metaphors that define and describe texts, nodes, links), a critical pedagogical activity is to visual the metaphor as a social force, that is, as a troupe that filters and delineates experiences, functions as a heuristic device and help constitute what a culture considers knowledge.” (180)
reflexive practice: “In order to function most effectively as agents of change, students must also become reflexive of technology a role that involves a combination of functional and critical abilities” (182).

How should digital literacy be defined?

How should it be taught?

Whose responsibility to teach it?

What are the social implications?
Benefit of appropriation vs. potential dangers?

How do instructors use digital writing in ways that do not simply rely on current-traditional or print ideals?

How do we re-imagine the cannons in a digital world?

How does this argument reflect Plato's resistance to writing?

Is the problem with technology or how technology presents gains and losses?

What is the importance of the terms used in a classroom?

What is multimodal writing?

Difference between multimodal and multimedia?
Key Points
+ Communications changes as media environments shift

+ Differences between print text and digital text > linear structure and organization vs. reader choosing his/her own path

+ The focus on authorship is a relatively new concept > capitalism and private ownership > copyright and plagiarism

+Modularity of the web > made up of chunks of text, images, hyperlinks, etc. > visual layout of webpages > more news at a glance remediation. > fragments information > repurposed for new meanings

+ Mass audience changes > not like a newscast confined by specific place and time users’ environments affect how they are able to interact with the content archiving digital material > change to new media, deterioration of older media (tapes, disks, etc.)

+ Internet often discussed in terms/metaphors of space > cyberspace, super highway, wed address, etc.

+ Audience not gathered in one space > work to gather information about audience > can’t assume audience will engage with text > must authors must spend effort to retain audiences’ interests

How does media (new and old) shape users interaction?

How does digital technology change author's roles?

How does digital technology change audiences' roles?
Warnick argues communication changes as media changes. She notes the specific differences between digital and print are important to pay attention to (organization, user interaction with the text). Stresses an awareness of authorship (or lack of) with digital media's focus on the authorless message. Likewise, she discusses audiences in terms of time and space, saying that authors can't assume the audience is in one space or will interact with the text (think nightly news example vs. website).
Key Points
Joseph Harris
The Idea of Community in the Study of Writing
Patricia Bizzel
'Contact Zones' and English Studies
Mary Louise Pratt
Arts of the Contact Zone
James Kinneavy
Theory of Discourse
Wayne Booth
Rhetorical Stance
Kenneth Burke
A Rhetoric of Motives
Summary/Key Points
Kenneth Burke
Terministic Screens > Five Summarizing Essays
Michel Foucault
Order of Discourse
Michel Foucault
History, Discourse, Discontinuity
Key Points
Porter approaches digital interaction through an economic lens. He saying that the exchange that happens is not necessarily monetary (it can be), but social. Digital Economy needs a robust view of rhetoric that includes “producers for developing knowledge and for collaborating with audiences to co-create knowledge.” Adding, “Writing—all writing, I would say—resides in economic systems of value, exchange, and capital.”
Digital Economics of “The Long Tail”
> refers to how digital technology is turning economic models upside down > more products, but produced for smaller audiences/consumers > cost is that low > still succeed

More diversity of choices for consumers
> consumers are changing into users > more active and productive > exception that writing/information will be tailored to the user

Social Networking and “The wisdom of the Crowd”
> depends on User Generated Content (UGC) >Useable database > searchable through tags > “folksonomy” > Information in constant flex, and there is a social interaction involved in the process of sharing it (181)

Social Networking Case: The “Teachers for a New Era” Project
Standards made more useable, based on interviews with teachers (formatting) “The best hope for implementing of the standards was to intertwine them with teachers’ work practices and create an information product that would allow teachers the opportunity to engage, contest, and revise the standards” (184). > integrated a folksnomic design > crowd wisdom > teachers share > delivery

The Dark Side of Social Production: Issues of Access and Labor
it’s never been fair > isn’t fair now > socioeconomic and educational divides are widening not shrinking > Exploitation of UGC > Doritos commercial takes away from professionals > is there a reciprocal relationship?

How does this lens help to reconceptualize users'/authors'/audiences' interaction?

What are the teaching implications here?

How do we make students aware of this exchange?
How are mulitmedia and multimodal defined?

How do we teach these to make students are of the social, political, and economic impact?

James Berlin
Rhetoric and Reality: Writing Instruction
in American Colleges, 1900-1985
Key Points
He is interested in theory and classroom practice of rhetoric. Asks: What is the role of rhetoric? He notes that one rhetoric is dominate at a one time (one moment), but none stay dominate throughout time. the difference between competing rhetoric (all claiming to be THE rhetoric) is epistemic. He outlines three theories: objective, subjective, transactional (“not exhaustive”).

Objective (Current-traditional)
- truth exists in the world, positivists > exists prior to language (to be discovered) > record exactly as it was experiences (transparent) > superficial correctness
subcategories: behaviorists, semanticists, and linguists

Subjective (platonic/aristocratic)
- truth found, experienced —known, but not communicated > common in creative writing > connections to Fruedian thinking > rhetoric to engage in dialogue with one another

Transactional (objective + subjective, constructionists, probable truth) -
cognitive - mind physical world connected; social construction - sophists - collaborative; epistemic - all truth are rhetorical construction

How do the theories appear in rhetoric pedagogy?

What are the connections and implication of these theories to epistemology?
>How is truth determined?
>Why is this determination important for rhetoric?
What is the job of rhetoric?

How can instructor merge classroom practice with theory?
Critical of the idea of contact zones > nice idea, but how does that work in a real classroom “Sweeping and vague” (12)

Only affinity of beliefs and purposes is left to hold communities together “The sort of group invoked is a free voluntary gathering of individuals with shared goals and interests—of persons who have not so much been forced together as have been chosen to associate with each other.

argues that our students should not be working toward a perfect or well-defined mastery of a specific discourse (17)

“community at once such an appealing and limiting concept” (21)
How do instructors build community in a writing classroom?

What limitations does "community" put on a writing classroom?

What should writing instructors be aware of in regard to community in a writing classroom?
She calls for a response to multiculturalism, but not a persistence of old structure. We should radically reorganize English studies (new system)

+ Not make literatures fit exactly but open a space for them to have a dialogue

+ Organize English around historically defined contact zones, moments when different groups within the society contend for power to interpret what is going on.

+ Employ contact zone (MLP) > often defined in terms of historical circumstances

+ United States contact zone > overlapping contact zones

+ Study texts in efforts of rhetoric > texts of all kinds

+ More focused on text

How do instructors apply the concept of "Contact Zone" to their classroom?

How are "Contact Zones," as Bizzel suggests, inclusive and exclusive?
She uses Contact Zone to refer "to social spaces where cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each other, often in the context of highly asymmetrical relations of power, such colonialism, slavery, or their aftermaths as they are lived out in many parts of the world today" (34). Unlike Bizzel, her use of the term refers to
classroom dynamics
rather than a focus on text.

How do instructors apply the concept of "Contact Zone" to their classroom?

How are "Contact Zones," as MLP suggests, inclusive and exclusive?
Kinneavy identifies this work as a textbook, and is concerned about the “anarchy” that is categorized as composition in high school and colleges (1). His thesis states, “The thesis of this work that the field of composition—or discourse as it will presently be termed—is a rich and fertile discipline with a worthy past which should be consulted before being consigned to oblivion, an exciting present, and a future that seems as limitless as either linguistics or literature” (2). Defines his use of discourse as “the full text (when feasible) of oral or written situation…” (4), which conflates writing and speaking (making it easier to move back and forth between the two).

(Does this take away from the specific attributes of each?)

How do instructors incorporate theory into classroom practice?

What is the benefit/urgency in making students aware of overlapping aims?

How does Kinneavy's thoughts jive with digital technology?
+ He calls rhetoric “catch all” term > what does rhetoric mean?

+ Traditional definitions raise questions: what are we writing, why are we writing, who are we writing to?

+Rhetorical stance > achieving and maintaining balance between 3 elements: subject, audience, and voice (characteristics of the author)

+ Points to 2 perversions: 1) too much focus on the subject, at the expense of the relationship between the audience and author and 2) undervaluing the subject, too much value the effect > advertising

+ Hard to explain to students the difference between reorganization to better fit the audience and over accommodating the audience in an argument (advertising)
What is the job of rhetoric?

How should we talk about rhetoric with students?

Compare rhetorical stance to Kinneavy's triangle.
Kenneth Burke’s notion of identity suggests that people identify with others based on common interests. For example, person A and person B are different; however, if person A sees his interests joined (whether actually or if person A is persuaded that his interests are joined) with person B, person A then identifies with person B. They are separate people, but joined as one under united interest (20). “In being identified with B, A is ‘substantially one’ with a person other than himself,” Burke notes. “Yet at the same time he remains unique, an individual locust of motives. Thus, he is both joined and separate, at once a distinct substance and consubstantial with another” (21).

> While people are still separate, unique individuals they also align themselves or identify themselves with various interests. Identification, according to Burke implies division (45). Yet, identification and division are not always easy to define. This ambiguity creates the “characteristic invitation to rhetoric” (25).

> Rhetoric’s job, then, is to bridge the gap of these divisions created by identification. Burke says, “Identification is compensatory to division. If men were not apart from one another, there would be no need for the rhetorician to proclaim their unity” (23). The rhetorician must persuade an audience to identify with him or his claim. According to Burke, “the speaker draws on identification of interests to establish rapport between himself and his audience” (46).

Connection between terministic screens and identification?

How does language shape our world?

Purpose of rhetoric?
> motivated symbolic action > move to action
scape goat: “If drama then conflict. if conflict the victimage.” > “Dramatism is always on the edge of this vexing problem, that comes to a culmination in the tragedy, the song of the scapegoat” (54-55)

Empiricist > one word per one thing

Two kinds of terms:
those that put together and those that take things apart (49) “ A man can feel himself identified with B or he can think of himself as as disassociated from B”
> differences of degree - Darwin sees man as continuous with other animals
> differences of kind - theologians see a discontinuity between man and animals

+ “All terminologies must implicitly or explicitly embody choices between the principle of ‘continuity’ and the principle of ‘discontinuity’

+ Think of this in terms of gay marriage debate > who sees gay marriage as continuous (difference of degree) and who sees it as discontinuous (difference of kind) and why
Terministic screens are the way one uses language to understand his/her world, created by his/her background, believes, experiences, education, career, and whatnot. People can have overlapping screens. A way to see and not see. He says we must use terministic screens since we can’t say anything without the use of terms, which constitute the makeup of our screens (50). Screens then direct our attention. He notes that we all have our own specific screen, but that there are socially construct/accepted screens that are grounded in our ‘collective revelation’.
>actions of person vs. motion of things

Key Points
What is rhetoric's role/job/purpose?

What is the connection between terministic screens and identification?

How do language and epistimology shape our pedagogy?
1) rules of exclusion
> prohibition
> reason vs. madness
> will to truth > epistemology
2) rules of limitation
> commentary
1. primary (places value on)
2. secondary (deconstruct rhetorical situation) > places value on > cannon
> author function
> disciplines
3) rules of employment
> ritual (i.e. church)
> discourse communities
> social appropriation (i.e. school)

Foucault sees language as form of power,
a way to control the uncontrollable (ending paragraph). It is a social organizing mechinism. He’s concerned with who gets the power and how they get it; what’s included and excluded; and little-t truth vs. big-t truth. He makes a point of saying

> I am writing the intro, but I only do this because it’s expected in the discourse —
The anti-intro intro

What are the social uses of language?

How does it define our world?

Connection to identification & terministic screens?
What are the social uses of language?

How does it define our world?

Connection to identification & terministic screens?
He argues that we should look at history in terms of the disconnections and discontinuities (where are the breaks), noting that discursive formations are total set of relations that unite the discursive practices at a certain period (governs the language, perceptions, and values of an age). There is one discursive formation dominate at a time, meaning it is impossible to think in terms of an other.

Discursive formation:
governs all of this : complex system of rules or laws govern what people can say or cannot say - change over time - determines the ideologies that are possible at one time - contains any number of ideologies
DF1 > disruptions or discontinuities, break or ruptures > DF2
(not a cause & effect relationship (A happens then B which leads to DF2)
Different timelines (each has discursive formations):
biology > rupture here (vs. A happens and changes all timelines)
mathematics > does not correspond to rupture here

relationship to what people say
{always competing ideologies in play}
what people actually say: daily lives, policy, governance

*what can be said and what can’t be said at any given point in time
>can’t imagine what can’t be said, because you can’t even imagine that

opposition - dominate component - defined and determined by the dominate system
>accept the system
>uncontrolled event (i.e. 9/11)

What are the ethics of digital writing research?

How do researchers approach public and private spaces?

How do researchers separate the text from the author?
What are ethical concerns for research?

How are these complicated by the use of digital technology?
Authors examine some of the problematic ethical issues that researchers face when doing digital writing research and show how studying writing in digital environments poses distinct ethical problems and issues for researchers.

casuistic heuristic grounded in rhetorical principles can help digital writing researchers critically interrogate their research designs, carefully examine their relationships with research participants, and make sound ethical judgments.
>Doesn’t provide answers, but a procedure to identify ethical problems

Key Points
are the researchers examining human subjects? Is it systematic research contributing to generalizable knowledge.
> what is considered a human subject?
> what is interaction?
> what is public? (Do participants consider it public space?)

Case-based rhetorical approach
: invention and analysis (casiustry)
> connection to rhetoric
> what is it?

+ Starts with a case where everyone agrees right or wrong (paradigm case) > build from the simple to the complex
> do know harm, but complexity is to figure out what harm is
> treated as an
, not a science
> art of rhetoric (phronesis (practical wisdom) - Aristotle)

1) circumstantial details matters
2) casuistry and rhetoric can function together

(connection between rhetoric and research) - participants - co-makers of knowledge
consider multiple audiences, colleagues

What are ethical concerns for research?

How are these complicated by the use of digital technology?
Bishop argues that all research relies on persuasion, including ethnography (149)

+ scientific writing = appeal to reason (150) “cool style”

+ “warm style” = “vivid subjective narratives that are, inevitably, meditative and interpret “ (150)

+ “Making. Equally, it is generative and creative because writing research ethnographies are overtly rhetorical; they are producing informed stories and arguments about the world” (153)

>>similar to Beverly Moss > seeing the familiar as strange and the strange as familiar

What connection can be made to Kinneavy's Aims of Discourse?

What consideration should rhetoric have in research?
- skills inevitable to acquire through natural living (learning to walk)
- skill that need special effort over and above the naturally occurring limitation (driving a car)

Writing is can be viewed as both natural and problematic. Skill that is acquired but based on naturally occurring language capabilities. (4)

(2) cognitive models:
knowledge telling
- “makes maxim use of natural human endowment of language competence and skill learned through ordinary social experience, but also limited by it” (5)
> lacks purpose, plan, awareness of readers
> relies on cues > straight ahead oral production, requires no planning or goal-setting(9)

knowledge transforming
- “involves going beyond normal language endowments in order to enable the individual to accomplish alone what is normally accomplished through social interaction—namely the reprocessing of information” (5-6)
> “thoughts come into existence through the writing process” (10) writing to think
> embedded in a problem solving process; move back and forth between content space (what to say) and rhetorical space (how to say it) > interaction between spaces = basis for reflective thought
> two-way interaction between continuously developed knowledge and continuously developed text

3 levels of writing research
> personal reflection, empirical writing research, literary analysis of text

3 additional levels:
process description, theory testing/experimentation, simulation
common place activities in cognitive research
all six (interactive levels) are needed - multi-level approach in this book

Revision (expert vs. novice)
novices can’t revise, unable to flip the perspective from author to audience, can’t imagine misunderstandings
feedback can help develop these skills

>> Berlin says cognitive approach is transactional
How does digital technology fit into knowledge telling vs. knowledge transforming?

Barney G. Glaser & Anselm L. Stauss
The Discovery of Grounded Theory (1967)
Grounded theory is theory generated from the collected data.
Glaser and Strauss argue data should not fit the theory, the theory should fit the data. Prefer Grounded Theory over verification or generation of theory. They advocate for a comparative method for generating grounded theory. Note that many researchers use this approach to generate Substantive Theory, but not Formal Theory. Grounded Theory includes research, coding, and analysis all going on at the same time, continually refining theory.

+ Grounded Theory can be applied by researchers and those in the field to be used in/for field (awareness of death example).

How can we use Grounded Theory to think about Digital Writing Research?

Where does this fit with North?
Stephen North
The Making of Knowledge in Composition (1987)
North focuses on how (vs. what) people claim to know about the doing, teaching, and learning of writing (1).
His book is “concerned specifically with what [he] shall be calling the modes of inquiry (*not equal to methods)—the whole series of steps an inquire follows in making a contribution to a field of knowledge—as they operate within methodological communities united by their allegiance to once such mode to an agreed upon set of rules for gathering, testing, validating, accumulating and distributing what they regard as knowledge” (1). He wants to begin a dialogue where readers can recognize their own perspective, their own community, and juxtapose it accordingly.

Key Points
Practitioners [ask: What do we do?]
+ technicians; apply knowledge (lore); primarily oral; devalued as knowledge maker rooted in lore (the accumulated body of traditions, practices, and beliefs in terms of which Practitioners understand how writing is done.
+ Concern:
“..when Practitioners report their inquiry in writing, they tend to misrepresent both its nature and authority, moving farther and farther from their pragmatic and experiential power base” (54). >hard they try; worse they get

Scholars [ask: What does it mean?]
{ fall under the umbrella of dialectic; working with limited text base, small in size; relationship to Rhetorician title; distinction between rhetoric and composition }
- work to provide a coherent past; generate knowledge about who and what has come before; inquiry: 1) empirical (verify by experience-facts) and 2) interpretive (create narrative)
- nature of inquiry > 2nd largest (after Practitioners); assumptions; unstable (least training, many don’t stay); eclectic; does not look outside the field for validation > investigates the “preconditions that lie behind the reasons we might use in deciding what to do” (131).
(Critics) - think Kinneavy Aims of Discourse - interpret text > “provides access to our voices, our own and others: access to the nature of consciousness, in effect, and they way it makes the world in words” (131-132).

Researchers [ask: What happens?]
(laws) - those who seek to discover generalizable laws for (and Ideally predict) the ways in which people do, teach, and learn writing (137).
(cases) - focus on individual cases: most commonly, the ways which a particular subject does, learns, or teaches writing (137).
(models) - build models or simulations by means of which they attempt to examine the formal properties of the phenomena under study (137) > i.e. the writing process (see Flower and Hayes)
(stories) make stories, make fictions (137) focused people as members of communities, mode of inquiry produces knowledge in the form of narrative accounts of what happens in these communities.

How do North's modes of inquiry connect to
other researchers work?

How could one use his modes of inquiry to
think about digital writing? Or how does
digital writing research complicate (or does
it complicate) North's argument?
Linda Flower & John R. Hayes
A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing (1981)
Flower and Hayes introduce a theory of the cognitive process involved in composing and lay the groundwork for a more detailed study. They claim this model is a "tool" for researchers to use in thinking about the process of writing. Their model was derived from participants using talk aloud protocols while responding to a prompt (write an article about your job for
Seventeen Magazine

Model contains three areas:
the task environment:
all the things outside the writer (rhetorical problem, assignment, and text).
the writer's long-term memory:
store knowledge of the topic, audience, and various writing plans
the writing process:
- internal representation of the text >
+ generating ideas, organizing, goal setting
- translate meaning (i.e. deer on ice image into words)

+ reviewing and evaluating

The researchers not that this model is a response to the linear (prewritng, writing, revising) model. They note that this model is recursive and writers move back and forth through it as they write.

***Connects to Scardamalia & Bereiter (see above)
See differences between good and bad writers in their models > specifically cognitive load and goal setting (not defined end point but connected to discovery).
> explore and consolidate knowledge which leads to further writing
> poor writers set goals sentence by sentence (what more can I add to this) > small chain links
> good writers set higher-lever goals and lower-level goals (often forgotten) and pop back up to higher level goals > revising goals as they go > Big recursive loops

*** North uses Flower and Hayes as examples of "Researchers" > their research being Formalist (i.e. created a model). He notes though that he feels their model is flawed in that the writing process encompasses all and is not a separate component.
How is this a too for thinking about the writing process?

Cognitive load and goal setting?

North's criticisms?

Robert J. Conners & Andrea A. Lunsford
Frequency of Formal Error In Current College Writing,
or Ma and Pa Kettle Do Research (1988)
Researchers argue that marking errors on students papers is an area where composition instructors have "multiple-personality disorder" meaning that there seems to be a varying approach to marking students papers. Researchers compare a randomized, stratified sample of 3,000 from 21,500 submitted from instructors across the country. Found that errors have changed since Hodges 1939 study on errors. Found that instructors mark smaller, easier to mark errors more often than larger. more complicated errors, Also marked the lesser errors only 2/3 of the time. Most common errors have changed over time (spelling, capitalization, punctuation (commas mostly), careless omissions or repetitions, apostrophe errors, pronoun agreement, verb tense errors, ungrammatical sentences (frag or run-on), mistakes in adjective or adverb, and mistakes in prepositions).

Robert M. Ermerson
Four Ways to Improve the Craft of Fieldwork (1987)

Outlines 4 "ways to strengthen and improve the craft of ethnographic fieldwork" > argues that researchers need to address the issues these suggestion raise
Spend More Time:
The Need for Immersion
+ "preach immersion" and "intimate familiarity" (72) not quick in-and-out {think Moss > Make the strange familiar}
Specify Theoretical Issues
+***Connects to Grounded Theory > Glaser & Strauss (1967)
> says that having "minimal theoretical preconception and review" (< this is a disservice) can result in having a ton of data that is not applicable
Attend consistently to members' categories and meanings
+ not just create categories, but consider how those in categories speak about themselves
Specify the Actual Interactual and Textual Practices that produce Ethnography
+Stress the importance of participation and acknowledging that research changes the experience being experienced
+ Reality not just experiences, but created (78)

What connection can be made to Glaser & Strauss' discussion of Grounded Theory?

How could these 4 "improvements be implemented in digital writing research?
Robert J. Conners & Andrea L. Lunsford
Teachers Rhetorical Comments on Student Papers (1993)
Connors and Lunsford used the previous back of teacher submitted papers (see above) to examine the rhetorical (not just mechanical) comments teachers made to students. They observed that few were not any studies that look at a large number of teacher responses. They were interested in challenging the notion that writing instructors were only concerned with rating or pointing out mechanical errors. The researchers were interested in global comments, responding to the content of the writing.

*Selected sample: Lunsford and Connors looked at 150 randomly selected papers each looking for patters (genre and form) to create a checklist. Got 26 readers to evaluate the sample. They found that positive comments were the rarest, followed by personal, but these often were attached to the highest grades. Negative comments were twice as likely and attached negative grades (did not effect writing, but students morale). Most popular were a rhetorical comment followed by a complaint. Beginning and ending comments often justified the grade (only 11% advised as a ongoing project). They found that rhetorical and mechanical comments could not be separated absolutely.

> I get the impression they repeated the same selection process for the papers as the previous study, but it doesn't actually say that.

What are the ethics of re-useing a sample?

Connections to North?

Connections to North?

Describe their methods and how it can be applied to digital writing research?
Shirley Brice Heath
Ways With Words (1983)
+ Heath immerses herself in the neighboring communities of Traction and Roadville (near Piedmont, NC area) to investigate the different ways these communities use language, and specifically, how the children acquire language. Her ethnographic method entailed being a member of the community, first (for 10 years she lived, worked, studied, etc.), and a researcher, second, meaning she took field notes or memos when she could, but not directly in the moment. This provided the access to the communities that other methods would not have provided (interviews, surveys, “researchery” observations). Furthermore, she only used tools which the community members would know (i.e. she only began to use a tape recorders as this items became common in the community > not intrusive).

+ gained trust > outsiders > as readers

Trackton children
working class, black community
education is viewed as the way to improve children’s condition > reading alone seen as antisocial
+ read done socially (daycare letter); writing is secondary
babies are not “prepared for” or “showered” with gifts. Only the basics. No extra space.
Always surrounded by people > not talked too, but talked at > children are not acceptable conversation partners
Oral tradition > stories are often fictionalized (hyperbole) but based on actual events > “talkin’ junk”
+ have to learn the difference between “storytelling” and “telling a story”
Children are involved in more language, but this is not always a benefit in school

Roadville children
Working-class, white community
children’s education is the ticket to a better life
Babies are prepared for and celebrated > has it’s own space and toys etc. > always surrounded by mother or female family (communal aspect to raising children).
Parents speak with their children > pointing things out to them > asking them questions > seen as conversation partners
Stories are often told in parable format > children are told to tell the truth in their stories
Writing is encouraged via notes/letters to family members > reading important information around them (signs, bills, etc.)

Townpeople’s children
Middleclass families in the area, both white and black
ask children to critically engage in their environment > via full conversations and question asking (vs. just reporting or describing, see Roadville)
reading and writing habits are varied > i.e. reading for pleasure, writing poems to reading for information and making grocery lists

Teachers as learners
Teachers used an ethnographic approach to better understand their students and how students relate with language > First grade teacher who created letters with tires, projected the words on a large screen, etc. > Teacher questions if the success in her class was fair to the students > would they be able to function in different classes
Trackton students often don’t understand school because it contradicts their home life practices
Roadville might do better early on because of their practice with reporting whats around them > more equal to school atmosphere.
Townspeople’s children do the best; school seems very natural to them based on their homelives
This new insight helps them develop significant pedagogical changes that enable students to integrate their community, home, and school lives.

Students as learners
> Students used an ethnographic approach to learning science > foodstuff > interview farmers and discover the difficultly of getting the farmer to answer their direct questions

Why did she choose ethnography?

How does ethnography compliment grounded theory?

Why would writing researchers be drawn to using ethnography?
DeVoss, Eidman-Aadhl, & Hicks
Because Digital Writing Matters
Key Points
The Landscape of Digital Writing:
The how and why we use digital technologies in our classrooms. Digital disconnects: 1) current generation (digital natives) and those teaching (digital immigrants) it > how technology is use in school vs. out of school > legacy content - traditional work and future content working with technologies and social implications of those current and future; 2) Access: the haves and the have nots; 3) Consumers and producers of products, information, writing, and more

Revising the Writing Process:
Learning to Write in the Digital World
Integrate technology into our classrooms > should be integrating; it’s already there > awareness and consideration of how we are teaching and using technology

Ecologies for Digital Writing:
Physical spaced, ethical and legal policy environments, and online environments (64) > network of relationship and environments in which we work
Physically flexible; acceptable use and academic honesty > authorship and ownership; public online spaces > audience > requires teachers to be stewards of a healthy ecology

Standards and Assessment for Digital Writing: l
arger conversations about assessment, best practices, technology is changing the way we evaluate > double helix metaphor technology content standards (what we should know) and writing content standards are beginning to align (93)
Instead of codifying standards > being flexible with how and why we are using technology (97) > including digital writing language in our writing standards

Professional Development:
Professional development linked to the other chapters so far: in the classroom, digital ecologies, and assessment

Some Conclusions, Many Beginnings:
Guide and respond to students’ writing as technology begins to change > active roles in democratic future > writing together > ongoing conversations.

Authors ask:
Why does digital writing matter?
: We live in a digital, networked world where there is no going back: Digital, simply, is. (ix)

Digital writing matters > complex activity more than just a skill (17)

Define digital writing:
“compositions created with, and often times for reading or viewing on, a computer or other device that is connected to the Internet” (7)

Why it matters:
new literacies support demand for participatory culture (11)
> *function, critical, rhetorical* Selber
How does teaching digital writing differ from traditional writing classes?

How do instructors make it matter to our students?

How do instructors encourage developing literacies in a class?
Irving Siedman
Interviewing as Qualitative Research (2006)
Seidman argues that in-depth interviews are a way of meaning making (participants make meaning of their experiences) and researchers (make meaning from the participants’ stories). He recommends a three interview (90 min. each) method, in which the first interview gets the background context, the second situates the research topic in the context, and the third is reflection on the meaning of the research topic. Says this approach helps to address issues of reliability, validity, and generalization (though he also argues we need new words > trustworthiness).

We make meaning through stories; storytelling is a meaning-making practice > insights into the person
selecting stories to tell is a meaning making experience

observer may make meaning of an event differently from the person experiencing the event

discover people’s meaning; interviewing is natural (“basic mode of inquiry”)
time consuming; expensive; graduate students might not understand/appreciate the history of qualitative research or the tension between the two > lacking in their educational practices of not choosing a positivist, quantitative approach; have to defend this choice

Interviewing as exploitation > concern > consider for whom the research is being done; why the research is being done > ethical concerns

three-interview approach (90 minutes; 3 days to a week a part)
1- establish context
background information > why did you go into teaching?
2- situate the experience in the context
concrete details > What do you do on the job? What are your relationships with your students like?
3- reflect on the meaning the experience holds
make meaning (not reward or satisfaction > Where do you see your career going? Based on your previous interviews and how you see your life, how do you understand being a mentor in your life?
only productive if the foundation has been established in previous interviews

Research instrument - human interviewer

interaction between researcher and participant affects the data > need to be aware

Questions of validity, reliability, and generalization
sticking to the format helps with these issues > calls to change the rhetoric here to “trustworthiness” > phenomenological

***Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes
>emerson, fretz, and shaw

Why would writing researchers be interested in using Qualitative Interviews versus other methods of research?

How could this research approach be used in conjunction with others (or grounded theory)?

What are the pros, cons, and ethical considerations of Qualitative
Patricia Sullivan & Jame Porter
Opening Spaces: Writing Technologies and Critical Research Practices (1998)
Writing Technologies and Critical Research Practices argues for a "postcritical research methodology" (a theoretical frame merging two often opposed inquiry paradigms) and applies this frame to the study of computers and writing: the book opens a space where theoretical scholarship and empirical research can interact. Sullivan and Porter view research as a set of critical and reflective practices that should be sensitive to the rhetorical situated-ness of participants and technologies and that should operate as a form of political and ethical action. The authors revisit the issue of the ethics and politics of research, but do so from the frame of postmodern rhetorical theory and feminist methodology.

Anne Berthoff
The Making of Meanings: Metaphors, Models,
& Maxims for Writing Teachers (1981)

David Bartholomae
Inventing the University (1985)
He argues that students need to acquire academic discourse. He says this is difficult and in order to do this they must "invent the university", they must practice using the discourse of their field. This means they have to let go of the safe territory and imagine themselves as "insiders" or an authority. When students struggle with this authority, they often slip into a "teachery" or "lesson-giving" voice. Teachers can't give the privilege or authority students need to develop this and its hard if they are not included in projects that would allow them to do this.

>Struggle with this in comparison to Black's Between talk and Teaching. She is arguing teachers too often force students to conform ideas and language to dominate ideas (gendaral, cultural, etc.). Isn't that exactly what Bartholomae is arguing we should help students do?
In what ways can we help students "Invent the University?"

Should we be asking students to "Invent the University?"

Integrating Multimodality into Composition Curricula: Survey Methodology and Results from a CCCC Research Grant
Key Points
Anderson conducted a survey of multimodal instruction: who was teaching?, forms?, design?, motivated to do so or recognized for doing so? Notes that Kress & Leeuwen say “no one expressive modality, including print, is capable of carrying the full range of meaning in a text…” (59). Thus the importance of multimodality. In his lit review, he looks at two surveys: 1) classroom-based 2) university based. He looked at strengths and weaknesses of both; range of questions; distribution; sample section. Found that strengths included well-defined populations, and sample selection; weakness: accompanied explanations or question development, lack of detail.

learn what comp teachers were doing and how this was perceived by faculty and administration to get a “snapshot”

8 sections (participants only respond to sections that apply to them): Multimodality and Praxis, Assessment, Resources, Technology, Assessment, Scholarship (tenure), and demographics > online

+ Definition of Multimodal still emerging (2005); varying definitions, but all include discussion of visuals of some sort. > lowest common denominator
teachers expected students to compose at home or in labs, some teachers with access concerns (working, married, parents, etc.) would like appropriate composing environments

+ Most teachers are self-taught in the technology used to compose multimodal > need for professional support or development
a need for support material (i.e. textbooks) that addressed the production of multimodal compositions

+ Scholars wanting to compose in multimodal formats face challenges in terms of whether those text will be counted toward tenure or promotion.
Examine dichotomy between teaching and researching in multimodal compositions

+ Some areas (web design; journalism graphics) “inherently” multimodal (80)
How do instructors better incorporate multimodality into their course?

What's the urgency?

What's at stake?
Anderson et al.
Anne Blakeslee & Cathy Feischer
Becoming a Writing Researcher (2010)
How do we help our students make familiar the unfamiliar and vice versa?

How do we get them to use their everyday knowledge about research to help them see themselves as researchers?
J. Creswell
Research Design: Qualitative, quantitative, & mixed methods approaches ('09)
Creswell gives specific definition and explination of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods research designs/practices. This is a directional text to help students write research proposals and think through their projects. Making choices about your research (methods, methodology, etc.) need to be informed by researchers' worldviews, procedures of inquiry, methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation.

- exploring and understanding meaning individuals or groups give to a social problem. Involves emerging questions. Data usually collected in the participants' setting. Inductive analysis building on general themes.Researmakes meaning through the interpretation of data. Puts importance on showing the complexity of a situation.
characteristics: natural setting, researcher as instrument, multiple sources of data (triangulation), inductive analysis, participant meanings (meanings the participants hold not the one the researcher brings to the research or writers express in literature), emergent design, theoretical lens (specific cultural item: gender, class, etc.), interpretive (researchers make sense of what they experience), and holistic (show the complexity) .

validity - researcher checks the accuracy of the findings (credible people, etc.)
validity strategies: triangulate data,multiple coders (member checking), think description, clarify the bias, present the negative information as well, spent prolonged time in the field

reliability - researcher's approach is consistant (across researchers and projects) - trustworthiness
reliability procedures - check manuscripts for mistakes, make sure codes stay consistent, cross-check codes

- A means for testing theory by systematically examining the relationship between variables. uses deductive reasoning. control for bias. being able to generalize and replicate findings. Variables can be measured using instruments so that numbered data can be analyzed using statistical procedures.

mixed methods
- involves the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods in tandem so that the overall strength of the study is stronger than one form alone.

Case Studies
- research explores in depth a thing (program, event, activity, process, or individual(s)). Bound by time and activity, data collected using a variety of methods over a sustained period of time.

- researcher studies an intact cultural group in a natural setting over a prolonged period of time, collecting observations and interview data. Flexible and contextual research process that responses to the lived realities encountered in the field.

Grounded Theory
- approach where the researcher has a general theory or a process or action grounded in the views of the participants. Uses multiple stages of data collection, and refinement of categories of information. collecting an analysing happen at the same time, constant comparision of the data, theory emerge from the data. Characteristics: constant comparison among emerging categories and theoretical sampling of different groups to maximize similarities and minimize differences. > a little different than Glaser and Strauss

World view: Social Constructivists
> seek understanding of the world - meaning is constructed by humans and they engage with the world they are interpreting
- qualitative researchers often use open ended questions
> Humans engage with the world and make interpretations based on their historical and social perspective (culture)
- qualitative researchers seek to understand the participants' context
- also recognize that the researchers' interpretation is shaped by her/his experience
> Generation of meaning is always social, arising from human interaction with the community
- qualitative research largely inductive, researcher generating meaning from data

Advantages and challenges of ethnography?

Case study vs. ethnography?

George Hillocks
Research on Writing Composition: New Directions for Teaching (1986)
Summary/Key Points
How do his criticisms of observational and case study research compare to North's concerns?
Composition Research: Empirical Designs (1998)
Key Points
Lauer and Asher seek to create informed readers and consumers of research, which is why they have examined eight empirical research designs spanning from qualitative (case study/ethnography-hypothesis generating) to quantitative (quasi-experimental and experimental designs-hypothesis testing). Thus, they wish to enable readers without specific empirical training to be able to discriminate among research studies, design, and select the appropriate design for their studies. Their model suggests that research progresses in stages: 1) developing constructs, 2) defining constructs as operationally as variables, 3) measuring and analyzing relationships between variables, 4) qualifying generalizability these relationships to other situations. They point out that empirical research is only one mode; there are others: rhetorical, historical, philosophical, linguistic.

Case studies
- qualitative descriptive research that seeks to identify/explore specific, key variable of a phenomenon. Questions individuals, small groups or whole environments. Researchers generally find variables to study from their own classroom experience. May bring theory to the project (questions or hypothesis) but the descriptive researchers try to withhold judgement to allow the data to suggest new conclusions. Can collect data in a variety of ways: composing aloud, writing samples, observations, interviews...). Conclusions can only be made about the content studied. Analysis of the data identifies relationship and operationally defines variables. Report results in the form of extensive descriptions, conclusions, suggestions for further research, questions, hypotheses.
> identifying variables (coding) - content analysis

- qualitative descriptive research that examines whole environments, looking at subjects in context in order to provide a window into culture. Unlike case studies, researchers observe many facets of the writing process and writers in their environments over long periods to operationally define, identify, and interrelate variables. Works on the assumption that human behavior occurs in a natural setting and needs to be viewed in that natural setting. The researcher often becomes a participant observer. Based on extensive observations, the research creates hypotheses, validating them by returning to the data, and producing "thick description" detail account of the behavior in context. Environment selection is important because it needs to be able to produce the behavior the researcher wants to understand. The researcher is either a distant observer (subject get acquainted with his/her presence) or a participant research (research is apart of the community he/she is studying). Uses triangulation to collect data (observation, interviews, coding (various people), research of behavior in other texts, strips (comparing categories). Coding the data can be a specific challenge. Results must show the data and relationships among variables > report variables for further study (see Hillocks).

Advantages of case studies and ethnographies
- attempts to give a complex account of writing which controlled experiments could not, closest to teacher experience, done in a classroom, results are helpful in teacher training, exposes blindness experimental research presents due to lack of context.
Difficulties & problems
- misinterpretations (data overload, first impressions, overly confident research -they had the experience, missing information, novelty of information, co-occurrences mistake for cause-and-effect relationships, reliability, validity, phenomenological.

case study versus ethnography?

Janice M. Lauer & J. Willam Asher
Undergraduates in a Second Language: Challenges & Complexities
of Academic Literacy Development (2007)
Key Points

Ilona Leki
"College Writing, Identification,& Production of Intellectual Property: Voices from the Stanford Study of Writing” (2013)
This study follows 39 students through college and first year out of college to map the ways that their perception of IP (intellectual property) changed over time. The initial interviews suggested that students felt that they consumed others' intellectual property (i.e. music), but that they did not see themselves as "prosumers" of intellectual property (I don't think write anything worth stealing). There was also a great deal of fear around intellectual property (Honor Code) and students often responded by "over citing." However, in a case student of one student, Mark, who was actively participated in open commons and collaborative poetry groups in colleges, his perceptions of IP changed as he began to produce more highly complex projects (writing a complex computer program). Students noted that early on they didn't feel like their writing had value because they weren't members of the academic community (Bartholomae), they didn't identify (Burke) as with their community; however, the more practice the more this changed over time (also, important to not the explosion of publication opportunities). Lessons for teachers: "flip-the-script" value what students are doing over what teachers are saying (Critical Pedagogy). Build community through participatory, collaborative work. Help students experiment with digital technologies. WOrk to create formal and informal collaborative spaces where students can build a writerly identity (academic and non-academic) - practice consuming and prosuming knowledge through publication and performance.

How do we bridge theory and practice?

What happens if we don't?
Andrea Lunsford, Jenn Fishman, & Warren M. Liew
Academic Literacies: The Public & Private Discourse of University Students (1991)
Key Points

Elizabeth Chiseri-Strater
Against the Sophists (circa 390 bce)
+ Regards himself as a Sophist but sets himself a part for the “common herd”
well educated > family lost money in the Peloponnesian War > supported himself as logographer (writing speeches for others)

+ not a great public speaker > stage fright > speeches written for publication, not delivery
antithetical {directly opposed or contrasted; mutually incompatible} and symmetric > developed the periodic sentence

+studied with Gorgias (who brought Sicilian Rhet. to Athens)

+ 393 bc open the first school of rhetoric in Athens > restored wealth > huge success
saw the job of education as to prepare men to serve the state
Philosopher > educate future civic leaders > “public business won’t wait…”

Plato (contemporary) opened his school a few years later > education help individuals seek truth

rhetoric central to education

charged high fees (like the earlier sophists) > stayed in the city; worked with students for years

students wrote speeches; then delivered them > addressed “serious subjects”

emulation > role model

+ Isoc. rejected Plato’ s philosophy on the absolute truth (rhetoric was then used to convey the truth to lesser mental audiences)

+ “felt it was a study of how to address immediate problems” > rhetoric was the investigative tool to solve those problems > probable, not certain knowledge > moving people to the common good.

+ Isoc. primary concern was service to the state > “probabilistic wisdom” used in practical affairs

+ search for transcendent truth immoral > brings isolation (Socrates)
Community has an undeniable claim on phil-rhetor and he must be a useful citizen

+ Emphasis on practical

+ Exists only as a frag, but written to publicize his school

+ Distinguishes himself from general principles > “foreknowledge” need to live a good life or formulae for writing good speeches

+ rejects philosophers (Plato) seeking absolute truth and “hand-book” writers (Cicero & Quintilian?)

+ “Fitness to the occasion” - Kairos
the reason general principles fail > must consider the particulars of a given situation

+ Most important one’s own natural ability > can’t teach this
practice framing for different situations > contents can be critiqued but not prescribed

+ Eager to distance himself from “teaching virtue”
the study of rhetoric can be morally improving, the process seems to be rhetorical > persuasion rather than empirical demonstration or insight > fragment breaks off before this is explained.
Key Points
Written for promotion of his school shortly after it opened. He uses this opportunity to distance himself from the other Sophists by criticizing:
high fees (especially those who condemn this but took $) > Sophist third party to hold until education complete
making worse appear better
grand promises that can’t be fulfilled > i.e. teach virtue
applying hard and fast rules to a creative process
“..oratory is only good if it has the fitness for occasion, propriety of style, and originality or treatment”
Good orator: 1) natural ability, 2) practical experience, 3) formal training

What is the role of rhetoric in education?

What is rhetoric's job?

View of Kairos?

View of Truth (different from contemporaries?

How different from other Sophists?

Encomium of Helen (circa 414 bce)
+ Born in Sicily (considered birthplace of the formal study of rhetoric) > brought rhetoric to mainland Greece

+ One of the best known Sophists > specialized in ceremonial oratory
> style overly antithetical & symmetric (similar style mentioned for Isoc.)
> Isocrates was his student
> wealth > lived long, no wife or children, traveled too much to pay taxes

+ Greek audience > oral culture > responded to “auditory spellbinding”
> listen to Gorgias = sensual pleasure & shared sense of participation in wisdom
> magic experience (like poetry), “conjuring conviction where no knowledge existed before”
> called attention to rhetoric’s manipulative effects > language can be crafted to suit a purpose

+ Believed provisional {arranged or existing for the present, possibly to be changed later} knowledge was the only knowledge humans could obtain
> provisional knowledge must be presented through rhetoric > appeals ethically, pathetically, and logically — appeal to the whole person

+ “Nothing exists; or if it does exist, we cannot know it; or if we can know it, we cannot communicate our knowledge to another person.”
>encounters with the world and sharing about it is limited

+ Argues for the all encompassing power of language

+ Gorgias excuses Helen for “succumbing to Pairs if he persuaded her” > “speech is a powerful lord”

+ power of language = drugs and magic > deceitful

+ some scholars see it as a jeu d’esprit {a lighthearted display of wit and cleverness, especially in a work of literature}

+ more violated by persuasion than forceable rape

+ “language creates and changes the opinions that are our only available knowledge”

Key Points
+ Begins with a discussion of what is “becoming” to different entities (city, body, soul, etc.) and says praise the praise worthy and blame the blameworthy > not right to blame praiseworthy and praise blameworthy

+ Rebuke those how blame Helen > prove the truth

+ Explains Helen’s lineage > godlike beauty > inspired men
set forth the causes of Helen’s voyage to Troy
> if left by will of Fate/Gods, then she’s not responsible for the god’s will
> if she were assaulted (raped), then her aggressor is to blame
> if speech persuaded her, she’s not to blame “speech is a powerful lord”

+ “The persuader, like the constrainer, does the wrong and the persuaded, like the constrained, in speech is wrongly charged.”

+ speech comparable to drugs

+ If she was in love, then she is not to blame

+ Thus, she is acquitted on all charges > by means of speech removed disgrace from this woman

How does this represent Sophistic rhetoric?

Compare to Isoc.
Phaedrus (circa XXX bce)
+ born into wealthy family

+ prolific writer > many works survived

+ Socrates was his mentor > after his death travel to Italy, Sicily, & probably Egypt > studied

+ returned opened a school (387) > grove of Academus (religious site sacred to the muses)

+ not known for producing political leaders (unlike Isoc. school)
Produced philosophers > Aristotle > occasionally women
emphasized math, natural sciences, and political theory

+ Believe transcendent truth existed and was available to humans > knew it before we were born (souls were divine) > probable truth (Sophist) was appearance of truth

+ Philosopher’s clear away the worldly debris that obscure truth
envisioned rhetoric as : discourse that was analytic, objective, and dialectical > show the truth behind appearances

+Thought Sophistic rhetoric was manipulative, deceitful, corrupting Athens

+ Sophists were moral relativists
> belief without knowledge of truth

+ rural setting; only 2 characters (Socrates & Phaedrus); Socrates has several long speeches
conforming to convention: superior soul brought down by the need to conform to the immature soul

+ persuader and persuaded resemble each other > subtext (how we learn)

+ love is the subject > about rhetoric > metaphor
>connection to language?
> persuasion-to-belief (bad rhetoric) is the lust of a non-lover; destroys the lusted
> persuasion-to-knowledge (good rhetoric) is like lover which seeks to make beloved a better person and bring the loved close to transcendent good, and not satisfy carnal desire.

+ good rhetoric encourages wings to grow (on bodies), to be investigated

+ Socrates & Phaedrus are examples of the kind of persuasion that fights conforming to convention and seeks to raise above it

+Organized inductively > 3 speeches in ascending order of quality
1) Lysia’s speech that Phaedrus reads
2) Socrates embarrassed by his discussion of love (lowers to Phaedrus’ level, which is inferior to my own)
3) raise Phaedras to his level > friendly/flirtatious

+ Rhetoric is the art of influencing the soul with words; to influence the soul, must know the truth; to know the truth, must make distinction between things; define terms carefully; analyze; synthesis.

+ think and speaking seem to be related

+ improve thinking by doing analytic & synthetic work for speaking > good speaking comes from careful thinking

+ KAIROS: “(The rhetor) should catalogue the kinds of human soul so that he can adapt his discourse to whomever he addresses” > *seems more audience driven than situation (Sophists)

+Oral dialogue superior to writing because it can lead to truth
need two people

+ planting metaphor > spread transcendent knowledge
Good rhetoric cannot generate the truth, but it is the right way to find it

Key Points
This is a dialogue between Socrates and Phaedrus (set in the country) regarding the work of Lysias. Phaedrus is trying to get Socrates to acknowledge that Lysias is the greatest orator (?) but Socrates feels he is unable to do so. The two go on to discuss false rhetoric (bad-lust) and true rhetoric (good-love), the methodic art of rhetoric, and rhetoric's purpose (to move the soul). Socrates argues that the ability to define and divide makes one a dialection; one must know all the parts separately (and then put them back together?). Doesn't come out and attack the Sophists, but does make note of their flaws (conforming to convention, belief without knowledge, make the weak strong, and probable truths). Kairos in terms of knowing men's souls, so to address the soul directly.

Compare: kairos, rhetoric, and truth to the Sophist approach?

What is the argument about the relationship between language and love?

On Rhetoric (circa XXX bce)
This is the compilation of Aristotle’s lecture notes, or that is the assumption because it has some contradictions and places that jump topics. Assumed that others have edited this work. Aristotle

wanted to create an organization of all that was known about rhetoric.

Books I (Pisteis > persuasion) & II - invention process > formal procedure (heuristics) > common topics (topoi) > “places to look for arguments > structural devices

“Rhetoric is an antistrophos (counterpart) to dialectic”
sets up the vertical visual: rhetoric far right; dialectic left; Truth far left
refers to rhetoric as an art (technē)

Support (artistic proofs):
Syllogism - factual > all men are mortal; Socrates is a man; Socrates is mortal
rhetorical vs. scientific?
probability vs. signs (examples?)
probability > special vs. common topics (the 4 or the 28) > neither get close to truth
enthymeme - probable > where there is smoke; there is fire
scientific universally true and scientifically truth > factual > all men are mortal; Socrates is a man; Socrates is mortal

Sophistry (35) the practice of the Sophists?

Footnote 31 > rhetor as “marked” or “unmarked”

3 species of speech (special to kind of appeal):
(subject) logos (37) - to demonstrate/show the audience something
(speaker) ethos (37) - character of the speaker
(audience) pathos (37) - feel emotions

3 categories of speech (special to kind of speech):

deliberative (political oratory) - suggest future course of action
epideictic (ceremonial oratory) - praise or blame the state of affairs
forensic (legal oratory) - provoke judgement concerning past action

Book III - place the speech in effective order (which arguments to make first)
Aristotle (Bizzell and Herzberg):
Macedonian parents > father was a physician to the royal family > he trained in medicine __ could be where is sciencey approach came from; foreigner
originally Plato’s student > taught in Plato’s school > started his own school, Peripatetic School in Athens (334-323 bce)
He was at the mercy of the political feelings toward Macedonia and its leaders/victories
academic thinker (teacher and scholar) > not public rhetorician
place knowledge in systematic order
removes kairos > sterilizes it > sciencey
DIALECTIC: among experts to find truth > to build agreement > truth in science
RHETORIC: the art of discovering the means of persuasion available for any occasion
investigate the situation
investigate rhetor’s inner resources for handling the situation
context and audience > move toward agreement
Pioneered psychology of individual and group

On Rhetoric:
scholars disagree on whether the text is complete/chief author > pile of lecture notes
began working on it while tutoring Alexander the Great
composing process + attention to memory becomes the canons (invention, arrangement, memory, style, delivery)
the argument one invents should appeal to logos (reason), pathos (emotion of the subject under discussion; align audience emotions with the speaker’s position), and ethos (trust the speaker’s character; shared concerns or speaker’s moral authority [I am old and wise]).
***Reason is the most important > relies on enthymeme or syllogism

ethos and pathos are also necessary for persuasion vs. reason alone * different from Plato (?)
Absolute truth available through scientific demonstration > materialistic/scientific not transcendent (Plato)
Dialectic (rigorous dialogue between experts can determine if truth is found > not to discover truth)
rhetoric not to discover truth > to address issues with which people don’t agree > (where demonstration is not possible; i.e. audience is not experts)
If conducted properly, rhetoric a way to arrive at agreement or question of value in everyday life with immediate action
aligned with Isocrates in the practical use of rhetoric
because he was a foreigner, he did not take on the civic leadership responsibilities that Isoc. did, but he does consider rhetoric to be a part of making practical decisions (should we buy a new ship or not?) > for things that are practical and need immediate action > similar to Isoc.

Key Points
What is the relationship between rhetoric and composition?

Is rhetoric it's own discipline?

Marcus Cicero
De Oratore (circa XXX bce)
+ born in Arpinum
from a wealthy family (upper-middle class); became a lawyer

+ Cicero died in a last ditch effort to prevent Marc Anthony from taking power (becoming tyrant)

+very style based on the effect he want to produce (and audience?): plain for exposition, middle engaging attention, and high for arousing nobel emotion

+never taught; might have mentored young public servants

+prolific writers > style admired and come to be a model of excellence > fusion of earlier traditions into a new view of rhetoric

+known for amplification (naming the same thing in two or three different ways in succession, adding elaborating clauses) > periodic sentence developed by Isoc.

+Rhetor must bring knowledge to the situation, more than what is called for
best orator must fill three offices: teaching, pleasing, and moving
must be well read to elevate the audience and move it to action

+ Studied Plato and Aristotle philosophies but applied to practical matters (<connection to Isoc.)

+ *Stasis Theory” > De Inventione (similar to the systematizing that Aristotle does, but puts it in motion by discussing possible contexts > Dissoi logoi - consideration of contexts

discusses the relationship between philosophy and rhetoric - still not sure what this is
[Later when he writes “Orator” he seems to have settled on a kind of split between philosophy (thought) and oratory (word). Probably did not mean it to be as severe as what happened to the two in the Renaissance but I am sure they in the Renaissance saw Cicero as sanctioning it.]
Influenced by Aristotle’s Rhetoric, but includes Isoc. (i.e. natural ability is most important) and Plato’s views (rhetor must discover truth elsewhere before delivering it to the audience).
dialogue between characters Crassus (i.e. Cicero’s ideals) and Antonius (help draw out-Marc Anthony’s grandfather)
Crassus - promotes broad [more deep too] learning and a study of rhetoric and philosophy
Antonius - argues that natural eloquence (most important) can benefit from instruction (narrowly conceived as formulaic).
Begins by discussion oratory and that it distinguishes us from animals > civil order possible

Key Points
This is a dialogue (similar to Phaedrus) in which Crassus (meant to generally represent Cicero’s views) and Antonius (meant to be the counterpoint and draw out Cicero’s views) discuss the relationship between rhetoric and philosophy. [I am not sure that modern thought is that they might pose two difference sides of Cicero.] Like Phaedrus, it’s set outside in the country. During the discussion, Antonius argues that natural ability is most important, while Crassus agrees he adds that this can be enhanced by training and knowledge of Roman law. Crassus defines the scope of rhetoric “use language agreeable to the ear, and arguments suited to convince” He also argues that a orator’s knowledge must be deep and broad. Antonius says that rhetoric bares a likeness to art but is not one, because it deals with opinion, not knowledge. Antonius suggests that to develop a young man’s rhetorical ability he would have the student imitate good writing and speech and argue actual lawsuits. He claims to derive this model from Aristotle. He also notes that an orator should feel the emotion he wishes to evoke (moderate or plain style for ethical appeals and a fiery style for pathetic appeals). Crassus and Antonius discuss wit, rational appeals, ceremonial speeches, and memory. Finally, (Book 3) Crassus address the the split between thought and word, which he accuses Plato and Aristotle of presenting, saying this robbed Isoc. and Gorgias of the title of Philosopher.

Saint Augustine: On Christian Doctrine (circa XXX bce)
born in Thagaste, North Africa
Converted to Christianity at age 32 (Mother devote Christian; father converted when Aug. was a teen)
converted after hearing a divine voice in a country garden in 386; baptized in 387
father promoted secular learning > sent him to study at Carthage to study rhetoric
at age 20 he was studying law and teaching rhetoric > taught rhetoric for about 10 years
383 went to Rome
385 went to Milan as Chair of Rhetoric
father promoted secular learning > sent him to study at Carthage to study rhetoric
Studied under Ambrose (bishop of Milan)
Strongly influenced by Cicero; paraphrases him several times in On Christian Doctrine
Platonic philosophers come closest to truth
wisdom (like in the Bible) is more important than eloquence
you can be a good orator without training if you have good models & God answers your prayers for help
Plato language to truth: separation of wisdom and eloquence (splits logos; thought and word)
Rhetoric must be employed for people’s own good (Cicero, Isoc.) > not used to seek truth , but need to convey truth to believers
can’t assume people with believe without persuasion
Used writing to disseminate speeches/sermons (Isoc.)
went back to Thagaste in 388; entered monastic life
ordained in 391 > founded monastery in Hippo; became bishop in 396
died under attack in 430

advises the Christian pastor on how to foster both psychological and social order by correctly interpreting the scriptures and conveying truth to diverse audiences
addressing pastors who where delivering primarily oral sermons that might have had to be adapted on the spot to the audience reactions
sermons were not composed in detail before delivered
Book I, II, & III > how to interpret the Bible
Book I - “Things” > Platonic overtones; Being a Christian is like being a traveler trying to return home
“land” - blessedness or love of God
journey should be cleansing
God is to Christ and thoughts are to words > logos
interpretation of the Scriptures should lead to charity; and interpretation is okay if leads to charity > not okay if leads to something other than intended by Bible writers > must be corrected or the interpreter might fall into love with his interpretation rather than what the Bible says, which leads to error
Book II - “Signs” > Tie to Aristotle (?)
signs cause us to think something beyond the impression it makes on our senses
literal sign (all men use it); figurative (literal meaning + something else)
Problems into four categories:
unknown literal - to interpret one needs knowledge of language (Hebrew and Greek)
unknown figurative - one needs to find out about the literal things which it refers
ambiguous literal -
ambiguous figurative
Recommends the study of dialectical logic > to learn logic is to point out the divinity (preexisting)
“study of disputation” but avoid Sophisms (?)
“Written words are signs of spoken words, which are signs of thoughts” (rejoined logos)
Book III - Ambiguous signs
ambiguous literal - compare translations to make sure punctuation and construing are accurate
ambiguous figurative - must first be recognized as figurative
How are these signs used elsewhere in the text?
may be a troupe (metaphor, etc.)
Book IV - written 30 years later
relationship between Christian truth and eloquence - use classical precepts to further sharing Christian truth
teaching - small things in subdued style (to teach)
delighting - moderate things in temperate style (condemn or praise)
moving to action - great things in grand style (move to action)
God’s truth belongs to God not the speaker
If you can’t think of anything to say > use speech of another > Medieval practice of lengthy quoting
Key Points

W. Douglas
Rhetoric for Meritocracy
Key Points
Coming Soon!


Robert Connors
The Rise and Fall of the Modes of Discourse
Key Points
The modes became popular and stayed popular in composition courses from the late nineteenth century to 1950s because of the increase of student population (post-WW boom > GI bill?), curricula broadened, and larger universities replaced smaller religious schools. The focus in writing courses was on mechanics, and product. The reason the modes didn't work is they did not actually teach students how to write. They were popular for so long because it was convenient for students. Connors argues that we should always be on the look out for scheme that seem too convenient.

+ roots in rhetoric of George Campbell
+ gained popularity in 1866 the publication of English Composition & Rhetoric (Bain)
+ stayed popular for so long because there was little/no theoretical work done during this period.
+ start to get beat out by single mode texts and theses texts > focus on a single thesis and its support
+ mode split: narration & description > CW; Exposition > FYC; Argument > Speech/Comm
+focus on the product and not the purpose > connection to Kinneavy's Aims of discourse (mode are not aims).
+Other movements began to challenge the mode theory (i.e. Process)
Discuss the evolution of writing instruction.
Susan Miller
Textual Carnivals: The Politics of Composition (1991)
Coming Soon

eds. Karen Cherewatuk & Ulrike Wiethaus
Dear Sister: Medieval Women & Epistolary Genre
Key Points
Coming Soon


Susan Jarratt
Rereading the Sophists: Classical Rhetoric Refigured
Key Points
The sophists rejection of transcendent truths and eternal values, their ability to move a popular audience with a range of rhetorical techniques, their interest in social exigencies: all formed a dark “shadow” of timeless Platonic idealism and the frozen perfection of Aristotelian logic” (2). Jarratt argues that the Sophists have been read as the "Other" and compares their reading to modern "Others" (women, minorities, LGBT) in Feminism. She discusses the "middle space" where individual concerns are discussed communally. She justs that this is evidence of democracy forming earlier than the 5th or 6th century as scholars suggest. She also argues that there is not a minear progression from Mythos to Logos. Mythos side represents a challenge to tradition of uncritical acceptance of nature (the Gods): Logos side nomos stands as opposition to a fixed truth and Middle spaces where nomos was created “the believed in.” Furthers the connection between the Sophists and Feminism: Women (irrational, magical or hypnotic power, emotional sensitivity) vs. Men (rational) and parallel between women and sophist > style (poetic, irrational, narrative) > “other”

+ Resist the idea of transcendent truth
+ Sophist as "Other"
+ Read as equal and not other
+ Mythos to logos not a linear progression
>embodiement (logos: think > say > do) rhetorical vs. scientific Aristotilian (but that what she is doing > divide and define > binaries)
+ If Sophists were read as equal then women ("Others") may not have been absent from rhetorical history

>Makes assumptions: either/or arguement, assumes the sophists would have not oppressed "other"
Problems with her arguement?

Connections to Logos?

James Murphy
Rhetoric in the Middle Ages: A History of Rhetorical Theory from St. Augustine to the Renaissance
Key Points
Cicero -

Quintilian -

Augustine -

Ars Dictaminas
Connections to Cicero?

Importance of this practice?
James Berlin
Contemporary Composition:
The Major Pedagogical Theories
Key Points
Neo-Aristotelians (Classicists)
- reality (truth?) can be known and communicates through language > rhetoric is to be used to persuade an audience of the truth > logic - syllogistic (men are mortal-Truth) reasoning, enthymeme (probable- where there is smoke there is fire) too > focused on the probable (there is Truth), but there are more interested in the truths - realms that don’t lead themselves to science

Civic sphere - Current-Traditionalists (Positivists)
- world is rational and truth is discovered through experimental method > teaching the modes? > inductive methods > definite Truth

[Enlightenment] Neo-Platonists (Expressionists)
- truth discovered within the person (“internal apprehension” - private world that supersedes the physical), flawed communication, others needed in dialogue to find the errors in truth > reaction to Current Traditional Pedagogy (which is still dominant) > truth result of a private vision, must be consulted constantly in writing > JB critic - expressionists truth in no way comparable to Plato’s transcendent world > dialogue remove error, but individual to discover knowledge

New Rhetoricians
- language to construct truth: “Denies that truth is discoverable in sense impression since this data must always be interpreted—structured and organized—in order to have meaning.

**Ethnography vs. Positivists methods > truth is impossible without language

Berlin outlines four major pedagogical theories (see key points). He says, “To teach writing is to argue for a version of reality” (766). He argues that teachers need to be aware of their pedagogical strategies or else there are serious consequences, ranging from confusing students to providing harmful information. Adding, “We are teaching a way of experiencing the world, a way of ordering and making sense of it” (776).
How does the way an instructor defines truth shape his/her pedagogy?

How do instructors merge classroom practice with theory?
Clay Shirkey
Here Comes Everybody (2008)
Shirkey examines how users of new, digital, online media use this technology to organize around special interests or concerns without getting bogged down by traditional organizational practices or structures (for better or worse).

- anyone can be a photo journalist (look at all the cell phone videos of police confrontations...). The technology that allows the instant, widespread dissemination of this UGC means traditional roles (i.e. journalist) are being redefined.

Power law distribution
- no matter what, the majority of a site's content/practice will be taken up but a small percentage of the population (wikipedia) eventhough no members work actively to make this happen.

+Audience and author blend sites like wikipedia > participation > redefining roles

Coasean ceiling
- intuitions grow too big to work well because the transactional coast is too high of managing standard practices
Coasean floor
- the point below which there isn't enough profit coming to meet the overhead coasts of the organization. Social tools (Flikr) allow organization around interests and low coast to operate under the Coasean floor > Connection to James Porter "Rhetoric in (as) Digital Ecology" > UGC > "Dark Side" > folksonomy
What is the role of rhetoric in a digital economy?

we prepare students to use social tools and join/participate in the digital economy?
William Riley Parker
"Where Do English Departments Come From?"
Parker argues that the teaching of English is only 100 years old and that "departments" are younger than that. He says the when and who started the teaching of English is unknown. He says that English is the product/child of Oratory (mother) and Linguistics (father); however, it's has since left its parents (mother - 1914 with the formation of the Speech Association of America and Father - 1924 with the formation of the Linguistic Society of America) Yet, literature dates back to the English Renaissance.

+ English teaching began at Harvard in 1840, but did not have a professor of English until 1876; first PhD did not go into teaching
+ In 1806 - Boylston Professorship of Rhetoric & Oratory was founded at Harvard
> John Quincey Adams was the first - his lectures (published 1810) were the first to unite rhetorical theory with classical doctrines
>Edward Tyrrel Channing (1819-1851) -
>Francis James Child (1851) - became first professor of English in 1876 (left post as professor of rhetoric and oratory)

Steps to development: scientific methods in linguistics, new rigorous methods in lit studies, and a new concept of liberal education

John Hopkins insisted that English professors needed a special kind of preparation in literacy and oratory skills

English was subordinate and often only taught in 10-12 weeks for an hour or by a professor who lectured on Belles-letters, but also taught other coursed (history, logic, moral philosophy, etc.)
> often a doctor of philosophy who spoke "mother tongue" > no specialization

Decline of classical ciriculum:
1) science, 2) American pragmatics, 3) democratic popular education, 4) spirit of challenging traditions

Composition was a branch of Rhetoric (writing & oratory)

Doubling of enrollments 1890s - need for practical or useful courses - specializations

Departments became a necessary admin tool/unit
> Literature want to increase its offerings by embracing linguistics and Rhetoric (included courses on oratory elocution, and all forms of written composition)
> English departments became a "catch-all"
> Splintering of the department: elocution absorbed by Literature (criticism) and composition becomes freshman theme writing

What is the relationship between rhetoric and composition?

How did composition gain its place in the department?
Miles Myers
Changing Our Minds
Key Points
Coming Soon!


Susan Miller
A Short History of Writing Instruction
Key Points
Coming Soon!


H.L. Marrou
History of Education in Antiquity
Key Points

James A. Herrick
History and Theory of Rhetoric: An Introduction
Key Points
Coming Soon!


James Golden & Edward Corbett
Rhetoric of Blair, Campbell, and Whately
Key Points



Sharon Crowley
Composition in the University
Key Points
Coming Soon!


Kathleen Blake Yancey
Reflections in the Classroom
Key Points
+ Defines reflection (a dialectical process) as: 1)the process by which we know we have accomplish and by which we articulate accomplishment and 2) the product of those processes.

+ reflection comes with the underlying promise that it can provide the means to bring together theory and practice

+ we understand ourselves by explaining to others

+reflection happens with in the context of a problem

+The BIG 3
: the process of review and projecting and revising which takes place within a composing event, and the associated texts (Here's how I wrote this text...)
+ Connection to Pratt's Contact Zone - different languages come together
Constructive reflection
: the process of developing
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