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Paleolithic Era & Neolithic Revolution

Whitehall Central School Global 9 Notes
by

Etta Michele

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of Paleolithic Era & Neolithic Revolution

The first major change in history! From the Paleolithic to the Neolithic Revolution 2 million years ago- 10,000 BC Paleolithic Era or Old Stone Age People who move from place to place for food Nomads Food nomads were hunters and gatherers
men hunted or fished
women & children gathered nuts, berries, fruits, grains, roots & shellfish Dwellings (Shelter) & Social Structure Nomadic people lived in bands of 20-30 people
Men and women were equal-- they relied on each other
Lived in temporary shelters, such as a cave or tents.
no permanent buildings Use of Environment made tools and weapons out of materials they found
stone, bone, wood
digging sticks & spears
built fires for warmth and cooking
used animal skins for clothing
traveled across water using rafts & canoes Religious Beliefs 100,000 years ago, people began burying dead with great care
belief in afterlife--buried people with the supplies (i.e. tools, weapons) they would need in the afterlife
ANIMISM-- belief that the world is full of spirits & forces that might reside in animals, objects, or dreams
cave & rock paintings show deer, horses, buffalo-- believed to be part of animist religious rituals Migration people began living in East Africa
migrated north & east into Europe & Asia
land bridge from Asia made migration to North America possible
migrated by boat to islands in pacific

Cultural diffusion-- exchange of ideas, customs & goods through interactions with other peoples 10,000BC Neolithic Era or New Stone Age People began producing their own food and had no need to be nomadic Settled peoples Dwellings & Social Structure Food Use of Environment People began domesticating plants & animals
domesticate-- to raise in a controlled environment
plants-- seeds scattered on the ground would produce new plants in the next year
animals-- round up animals that were normally hunted. could use for food and skins, but also for milk &eggs
Systematic agriculture-- keeping animals & growing food on a regular basis
VERY slow process-- people had to learn how to tame animals & grow plants. First permanent villages began
people began to have more personal property
The work in each village was divided by gender & age.
men came to dominate family, economic, and political life
First governments appeared
Council of Elders-- decided what to plant and when to harvest.
Warfare increased when food was scarce
Warriors began to emerge, gaining prestige and asserting power. Men vs. Women Domesticating animals and plants on farms
domesticate-- to raise in a controlled way
could use animals for food & skins, but also for milk and eggs
Villages had workshops
making tools-- could now use metals to make smooth, polished ax heads & arrowheads
weaving cloth from animal hairs and vegetable fibers
use clay to make pottery for cooking and storage The Rise of Civilizations Earliest civilizations developed near major rivers, called river valleys
Rivers provided a regular water supply & a means of transportation
Rich, fertile lands were perfect for farming-- flood waters spread silt which renews soil.
Cities developed within civilizations
people could now have a profession other than farming Cities
Organized Governments
Organized Religion
Job Specialization
Social Classes
Traditional Economies
Arts & Architecture
Public Works (Roads, bridges, etc)
Systems of Writing Main Features of a Civilization What is a Civilization? a complex culture in which large numbers of humans share a large number of common elements Cities Government Religion Social Structure Writing Art developed in order to maintain the food supply & to provide defense against outside intruders
maintained smooth interactions between individuals & between groups.

Monarchs-- kings or queens who rule a kingdom emerged as farmers cultivated land along river valleys & produced surplus food.
populations increased & people were able to have professions other than farming. most civilizations developed religion in order to explain the forces of nature & their roles in the world.
worshiped gods & goddesses-- polytheistic
priests supervised many rituals aimed at pleasing them
Many rulers proclaimed their power through "divine right." (The power to rule is given by the gods.) classes formed based on economic powers
Rulers, upper classes of priests, government officials, & warriors dominated society
Below them was a large class of free people-- farmers, artisans, craftspeople
Slaves were the LOWEST of the low-- little to no rights were given.


craftspeople & artisans started creating more luxurious things to fulfill demands of upper class... This led to.... TRADE! Began exporting goods to neighboring populations in exchange for raw materials. First instance of organized trade!
Trade brought different people together
**CULTURAL DIFFUSION** transfer of new technology
use of metals for tools
innovative farming techniques Each River Valley civilization developed independently.
Based on developments connected to agricultural revolution of Neolithic Age & the cities that the revolution produced. This was a REVOLUTIONARY STAGE IN GROWTH OF HUMAN SOCIETIES rulers, priests, merchants, & artisans needed a way to keep accurate records
Scribes were people who could write and were paid to keep records.
eventually writing was used for creative expressions, as well
world's first works of literature temples & pyramids were built as places of worship and sacrifice, as well as for the burial of kings
painters & sculptors
portrayed stories of nature
depictions of the rulers & gods they worshiped Men became more active in farming & herding animals
activities that took them away from settlements
More responsibility for obtaining food & protecting the settlement
led to more dominant role in society Women stayed at home while the men went away
cared for children
wove cloth for clothing

Gained a more submissive role in society Effects walls were built for protection
storehouses were built for surplus
trading encouraged learning crafts
division of labor
more refined tools
flint blades were used to make sickles & hoes for farming
food plants we still use today
fibers we still use today in clothing
flax; cotton ? Men & Women Men: away from camp for long periods of time in order to hunt large game Women: important role in gathering food.
Taught children which foods were edible
Trapped small animals
Kept camp safe Traditional Economy:
an economy that focuses on agriculture
uses barter system instead of monies Egypt
Nile River
Mesopotamia
Tigris & Euphrates Rivers
Indus River Valley
Indus River
China
Huang He Four Major River Valley Civilizations
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