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Untitled

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by

ali dessa

on 24 June 2014

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Transcript of Untitled

Combustion Chamber
Introduction
Fuel Control System
Introduction to fuel control system
Fuel Systems
Injector
Design of Injector
Conclusion
Fuel System Components
-Function :
Fuel control system provides the engine with fuel in a form suitable for combustion and to control the flow to the required quantity necessary for easy starting, accelerating and stable running at all engine operating conditions.
-Effect of altitude.


-What will happen to the fuel flow when the altitude increase..?
Introduction:
A jet engine is a heat engine that is propelled in a forward direction as the result of the escape of hot gases from the rear of the engine. In an air breathing jet engine, air entering the front of the engine is used to burn a fuel within the engine, producing the hot gases needed for propulsion (forward movement).
History Of Jet Engines:
-Engine development started 1848 with john Stringfellowwho built the
first working streamline engine body
. - 1930: Frank Whittle submitted his first panted for
turbofan engine .
-1950 : Rolls-Royce Conway
, the world’s first production
TURBOFAN
, enters service.
Types of Engine
Ramjet Engine
Turbojet Engine
Turbofan Engine
Turboprop Engine
Trubofan Cycle
Air Intake
Compression
Combustion
Expansion
Exhaust
Combustion Champer
Types of combustion chamber
Can-Type Burner And Multiple combustion
chamber
Advantages :

1- Mechanically strong
2- Fuel Flow & air flow patterns are easily
matched
3- Easy replacement for maintainance

Disadvantages :
1- Heavy
2- High pressure loss
3- Require interconnects
4- Large frontal area
5- Talling the engine


Can-Annular Combustion Chamber
Advantages :

1- Mechanically strong
2- Fuel Flow & air flow patterns are easily
matched
3- Shorter & lighter
4- Low pressure loss
Disadvantages :

1- Require interconnects
2- Not easy maintainance


Advantages :

1- Minimum length
2- Minimum pressure loss
3- Minimum frontal area
4- Less wall area (cooling air required less )
5- Easy light around
6- simple Design & structure
7- Better mixture air & fuel
Disadvantages :
1- Buckling in outer linear
2- Engine necessary romvable for maintainance

Annular combustion chamber
-Combustion intensity
-Combustion efficiency
-Combustion stability
- Emissions

MATERIALS
Combution Chamber performance
Fuel system component
Indicators
Accessories
Power supply section
Tanks
Pumps
Filters
Valves
Bladder Fuel Tanks
Integral Fuel Tanks
Rigid Removable Fuel Tanks

Water Management
C- Free water coming primarily from water condensing from air entering the tank from the vent system during aircraft descent.
viscosity problem.
To overcome this problem is to use small ejector pumps to suck fuel from the tank sump and to deliver the contents, ideally in small droplet form, to the inlet of the main boost pumps.
A-Water is readily absorbed from the atmosphere by kerosene fuels where it becomes dissolved in the fuel.
This is difficult to control and typically exists in uplifted fuel at levels of 50 to 100 ppm at typical ground ambient temperatures.

At this level of contamination, kerosene fuel appears clear.

B- Water in suspension.
This occurs following the cooling of relatively warm fuel which releases water as fine droplets.
This form of water dispersion is undesirable, since as fuel cools below freezing, the water can form super-cooled droplets that can turn into ice when coming into contact with pump inlet strainers and engine filters
To overcome this problem is to follow this fuel contaminating control by using suitable fuel / water filter
CG Shift due to Fuel Storage
Comparison of single and four compartment configurations.

Illustration of baffle check-valve function.
Climb and descent CG shift plots

Tanks Types
The pump in a fuel system, also known as a fuel pump, converts the mechanical energy in a drive unit into fuel energy (pressure energy) The resistances encountered by the flowing hydraulic fluid cause a pressure to build up in the fuel system. The level of the pressure corresponds to the total resistance which results from the internal and external resistances and the flow rate.
The characteristics of the pump
1-Displacement volume
2-Operating pressure
3-Speeds
4-Efficiency

Types of pumps
Pumps
Accessories
FUEL HEATING
GAS TURBINE FUELS
Fuels for aircraft gas turbine engines must conform to strict requirements to give optimum engine performance, economy, safety and overhaul life. Fuels are classed under two headings, kerosene-type fuel and wide-cut gasoline-type fuel.

Vapor locking and boiling
The main physical difference between kerosene and wide-cut fuels is their degree of volatility, the latter type of fuel having a higher volatility, thus increasing the problem of vapor locking and boiling.

Fuel contamination control
Fuel can be maintained in good condition by well planned storage and by making routine aircraft tank drain checks. The use of suitable filters, fuel/water separators and selected additives will restrict the contamination level
a fuel-cooled oil cooler is located between the L.P. fuel pump and the inlet to the fuel filter , and advantages taken of this to transfer the heat from the oil to the fuel and thus prevent blockage of the filter element by ice particles.

Fuel requirements
1-Be “pumpable” and flow easily under all operating conditions.
2-Permit engine starting at all ground conditions and give satisfactory flight relighting characteristics.
3-Give efficient combustion at all conditions.
4-Have as high a calorific value as possible.
5- Produce minimal harmful effects on the Combustion system or the turbine blades
6- Produce minimal corrosive effects on the Fuel system components.
7-Provide adequate lubrication for the moving Parts of the fuel system.
8-Reduce fire hazards to a minimum.
i-The volatility of the fuel; that is, its ability to vaporize easily, especially at low temperatures.
ii-The degree of atomization, which depends upon the viscosity of the fuel.
Fuel Quantity Gauges
(1) Sight glass
(2) Mechanical
(3) Electrical
(4) Electronic
Fuel Flow meter
Fuel Pressure Gauge
Valve In Transit Indicator Lights
Fuel Temperature Indicator
Indicators
Pressure Warning Signal
Fuel Transfer Systems
The gravity-feed fuel system
It's the simplest way of transferring fuel. This method is used in general aviation and commercial a/c depending on the tank configuration. An example of an a/c with gravity transfer is Saab 2000
Dihedral gravity transfer of fuel from outboard to inboard wing tank
PUMP FEED SYSTEM
High Wing Aircraft with Fuel Injection System
Low-Wing Aircraft Fuel System
Large Reciprocating-Engine Aircraft Fuel Systems.
Jet Transport Aircraft Fuel Systems
fuel systems can be regarded as a handful of fuel subsystems :
1.Storage
2. Vent
3. Distribution
4. Feed
5. Indicating
Helicopter Fuel Systems
Siphoning
Refueling And Defueling System
-Introduction
-Operational Standards :
* Ramp agent
* Flight crew
*Ground engineering
*Cabin crew
-Evacuation/Disembarkation
-Safety Precautions
-Prevention Strategies
-Summary of Key Points
-Associated Flight Operations Briefing Notes

mechanical fuel control for turboprop
mechanical fuel control for turbojet
ELECTRONIC ENGINE CONTROL

F.A.D.E.C. System
Input Signals
1-Throttle position
2-Air data
3-Total temperature
4-Engine speed
5-Engine temperature
6-Nozzle position
7-Pressure ratio
8-Fuel flow
Output Signals
1-Air flow control
2-Fuel flow control

Engine supervisory control
Fuel spray nozzle (
Injector
)
Function
Atomizing the fuel to ensure its rapid burning
Method
Pass the fuel through a swirl chamber which converting fuel pressure energy to kinetic energy then the fuel is passed through the discharge orifice which removes the swirl motion.

Types
1-Simplex nozzle
2-variable ports (Lubbock)
3-the Duplex or Duple.
4-the spill nozzel.
5-the air spray nozzle.
Manufacture of fuel control system
Components of fuel control system
1.Tank 2.tools 3.valves
4.Pump 5.injector (air , fuel) 6.flow meter
7.Hoses 8.air compressor 9.combustion chamber
Photos Injector design
Conclusion
Target
 Achieved exact target
 Some notes for researchers to achieve the target with higher efficiency
Fuel control system provides the engine with fuel in a form suitable for combustion and to control the flow to the required quantity necessary for easy starting, accelerating and stable running at all engine operating conditions.
• We choose to design and make manufacture for " simplex spray nozzle " because it's simple at design, manufacture and minimum cost.
• We used " butter fly valve " to put the mass flow rate under control.
• We used water and air for testing flame length and cone angle, then we used butane and air in firing test.

1- Use fuel control unit and fuel control valve to make automatic control to get accurate results.
2- Use kerosene instead of butane to simulate the actual system installed at aircraft.

to Jet Engines
To Dr. Badiea Hafez
You were our inspiration Thank you for all your Encouragement, patience and support.
Fuel transfer system
circuit in detail
-Made of Aluminum
-Specific compartment
-Padded straps
-Expensive light A/C &Recoprecating engine
-Remove fuel Vapor
-reinforced rubberized bag
-held with buttons
-used in all sizes
-strong and have along life
-Doesn't required a large area
-Light A/C & some turboprop A/C
-Located in A/C wind or fuselage
-Built into the struc. of A/C
-Seams are sealed to produce area of
fuel
-Must have inspection panels
-commonly used today
- Light high performance A/C &
Turbine power transports
In general, a gas turbine fuel should have the following qualities:
Satisfactory ignition depends upon the quality of fuel in two ways:
Low- and mid-wing single reciprocating engine aircraft cannot utilize gravity-feed fuel systems because the fuel tanks are not located above the engine. Instead, one or more pumps are used to move the fuel from the tanks to the engine.
Some high-wing, high performance, single-engine general aviation aircraft are equipped with a fuel system that features fuel injection rather than a carburetor. It combines gravity flow with the use of a fuel pump(s).
Large, multiengine transport aircraft powered by reciprocating radial engines are no longer produced. However, many are still in operation. They are mostly carbureted and share many features with the light aircraft systems previously discussed.
Team work
1-Ahmed Ahmed Abdelrahman Mayhoop.
2-Ahmed Mohamed Metwally Ghatas.
3-Ahmed Salah Mohamed Mohamed Abdelrahman.
4-Aly Gamal Mohamed Abd Elaal.
5-Eslam Anwar Mostafa.
6-Ibrahem Fouad Ghoniem.
7-Ibrahem Sayed Mohamed Sadik.
8-Magdy Ahmed Qasem Elkharadly.
9-Mohamed Fathi Mohamed Abdullah.
10-Saad Elsayed Saad Elshafie.
The most important valves are:
1. Governor speed valve.
2. Spill valve.
3. Back pressure valve.

Fuel flow change due to :
1. Throttle movement.
2. Air temperature and pressure.
3. Rapid acceleration and deceleration.
4. Engine gas temperature and compressor delivery pressure.
Full transcript