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1. Latitude and Longitude, Earth-Sun, 4 Spheres, and Climates
Transcript of 1. Latitude and Longitude, Earth-Sun, 4 Spheres, and Climates
II. MELLO & Earth-Sun Relationship
III. 4 Spheres & Climate Regions
I. Latitude, Longitude
Lines on globes and maps provide information that can help you locate places.
The Geographic Grid is made up of Latitude & Longitude lines, helps geographers find absolute location.
A Hemisphere is a half of the globe.
The Equator divides the globe into Northern & Southern halves.
The Prime Meridian divides the globe into Eastern & Western halves.
Lines of Latitude run around the globe horizontally
The Equator is measured at 0° latitude
Lines of Longitude run from pole to pole.
Measuring the distance East and West of the Prime Meridian.
Lines of Longitude also help mark the time of day.
Use the coordinates to find absolute places
II. Climate Regions
Many factors influence climate: elevation, ocean currents, size of land mass, winds…
However... LATITUDE is the MOST influential factor that affect climate type. (Latitude, Latitude, Latitude)
Important Lines of Latitude
Low Latitude Climates
Marine West Coast
High Latitude Climates
Which Quarter are these coordinates located?
1. 41°N, 21°E
2. 37°N, 76°W
3. 72°S, 141°W
4. 34°S, 151°E
Bell Ringer Map
World Concentration of Light Map
N. and S. Korea by Night
Describe the physical processes (Earth-Sun relationship) that create climate regions.
Weather: the daily condition of the atmosphere. Includes temperature and precipitation.
Weather vs. Climate
Precipitation: Moisture that falls from the sky. RAIN, SNOW, SLEET and HAIL!
Climate: Average weather condition measured over an extended period of time (30 years).
World Climate Regions
What patterns do you see?
M ountain Barriers
O cean Currents
Factors that affect climate
Increase in elevation = Decrease in temperature
°N or °S of equator
Equator = direct rays = hot
Poles = very indirect rays = cold
Biggest effect on climate!!
Oceans are solar energy collectors because water heats & cools more slowly than land…
Coastline has a stable temperature
Interior of continent has extreme temperatures (hotter & colder)
Giant rivers of sea water flowing at surface of oceans
Flow in circular paths:
Warm currents carry water from low → high latitudes,
Cool currents return cooled water from high → low latitudes.
II. Earth Sun Relationship
Tilt - Earth is tilted at 23.5 degrees on its axis (the reason why we have seasons)
Revolution - Earth's trip around the sun (one year)
Rotation - Earth rotates on its axis every 24 hours
3 Main Things to Know about the Earth and Sun
Equinox and Solstice
Equinox - Sun's rays fall directly on the equator
Equal amount of rays (September/Fall & March/Spring)
Solstice - Sun's rays strike directly on Tropic of cancer and Tropic of Capricorn
June/Summer & December/Winter
III. 4 Spheres of the Earth (4 Realms)
Lithosphere - All processes associated with the solid earth
Hydrosphere - All processes associated with water
Atmosphere - All processes associated with the gases that envelope the earth
Biosphere - All processes that involve living organisms
Lithosphere = Earth’s Land
Hydrosphere = Water
Atmosphere = Air/Gases
Biosphere = Life/Animals
All of the earth’s spheres depend on each other in order for the biosphere (life) to survive.
??? What would happen if one of the spheres didn’t exist???
Question to think about???