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1. Latitude and Longitude, Earth-Sun, 4 Spheres, and Climates

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Chris Kapuscik

on 26 April 2015

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Transcript of 1. Latitude and Longitude, Earth-Sun, 4 Spheres, and Climates

I. Latitude, Longitude, and Location
II. MELLO & Earth-Sun Relationship
III. 4 Spheres & Climate Regions

I. Latitude, Longitude
Lines on globes and maps provide information that can help you locate places.
The Geographic Grid is made up of Latitude & Longitude lines, helps geographers find absolute location.

Hemisphere
A Hemisphere is a half of the globe.
The Equator divides the globe into Northern & Southern halves.
The Prime Meridian divides the globe into Eastern & Western halves.

Latitude
Lines of Latitude run around the globe horizontally
The Equator is measured at 0° latitude
Longitude
Lines of Longitude run from pole to pole.
Measuring the distance East and West of the Prime Meridian.
Lines of Longitude also help mark the time of day.
Use the coordinates to find absolute places
II. Climate Regions
Many factors influence climate: elevation, ocean currents, size of land mass, winds…
However... LATITUDE is the MOST influential factor that affect climate type. (Latitude, Latitude, Latitude)

Important Lines of Latitude
Low Latitude Climates
Desert
Savanna
Rainforest
Mid-Latitude Climates
Steppe
Humid Sub-Tropical
Mediterranean
Humid Continental
Marine West Coast
High Latitude Climates
Sub Arctic
Arctic
Highland
A
B
C
D
Which Quarter are these coordinates located?
1. 41°N, 21°E
2. 37°N, 76°W
3. 72°S, 141°W
4. 34°S, 151°E
Bell Ringer Map
World Concentration of Light Map
N. and S. Korea by Night
M.E.L.L.O. Notes

Describe the physical processes (Earth-Sun relationship) that create climate regions.

Weather: the daily condition of the atmosphere. Includes temperature and precipitation.

Weather vs. Climate

Precipitation: Moisture that falls from the sky. RAIN, SNOW, SLEET and HAIL!

More Weather

Climate: Average weather condition measured over an extended period of time (30 years).

Climate

World Climate Regions
What patterns do you see?

M ountain Barriers
E levation
L atitude
L ocation
O cean Currents

Factors that affect climate

Mountain Barriers

Rain-shadow effect
Increase in elevation = Decrease in temperature

Elevation

°N or °S of equator
Equator = direct rays = hot
Poles = very indirect rays = cold

Biggest effect on climate!!

Latitude

Oceans are solar energy collectors because water heats & cools more slowly than land…
Coastline has a stable temperature
Interior of continent has extreme temperatures (hotter & colder)

Location

Giant rivers of sea water flowing at surface of oceans
Flow in circular paths:
Warm currents carry water from low → high latitudes,
Cool currents return cooled water from high → low latitudes.

Ocean Currents

II. Earth Sun Relationship
Tilt - Earth is tilted at 23.5 degrees on its axis (the reason why we have seasons)

Revolution - Earth's trip around the sun (one year)

Rotation - Earth rotates on its axis every 24 hours
3 Main Things to Know about the Earth and Sun
Equinox and Solstice
Equinox - Sun's rays fall directly on the equator
Equal amount of rays (September/Fall & March/Spring)

Solstice - Sun's rays strike directly on Tropic of cancer and Tropic of Capricorn
June/Summer & December/Winter

III. 4 Spheres of the Earth (4 Realms)
Lithosphere - All processes associated with the solid earth
Hydrosphere - All processes associated with water
Atmosphere - All processes associated with the gases that envelope the earth
Biosphere - All processes that involve living organisms

4 Spheres
Lithosphere = Earth’s Land


Hydrosphere = Water



Atmosphere = Air/Gases



Biosphere = Life/Animals

All of the earth’s spheres depend on each other in order for the biosphere (life) to survive.

??? What would happen if one of the spheres didn’t exist???

Question to think about???
Full transcript