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The Skeletal System

Basic description of parts of the skeletal system. Designed for 9 PASS syllabus but could also be used as an introduction/revision 10 stage 6 body in motion.
by

Kelly McGregor

on 7 March 2016

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Transcript of The Skeletal System

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
Muscles convert chemical energy to mechanical energry to allow us to move
3 types of muscles
AXIAL SKELETON
It is divided into 2 parts
The Skeletal System includes:

Bones - we have 206
Joints which consist of:
Ligaments
Tendons
Cartilage
APPENDICULAR SKELETON
Function of the Skeletal System
Structure and support of the body
protection of soft organs
provides a site for muscles to attach to
blood cell formation and mineral storage
Types of Bones
Different bones need to be different shapes to suit the needs of the body.

Long bones
Short bones
flat bones
Irregular bones
Sesamoid bone
Joints
Where does a joint occur?
Look at the picture and describe what you see?
Joints refer to the regions of the body where two or more bones come together, usually for the purpose of motion.
Some joints, like those in the cranium, allow very little movement; while other joints, like the elbow, knee, hip and shoulder, allow a great deal of movement.
Connective tissues allow a joint to produce effective movement and for the bones to stay in the correct place.
Can you identify the 3 types of connective tissue?
Ligament
Tendon
Cartilage
Smooth, slightly elastic tissue
Various forms within the body
1. hyaline cartilage covers the ends of bones
2. hard cartilage in the tips of the ears and nose, attaches ribs to sternum,
3. Cartilage Discs- separate vertebrae
Functions include shock absorption and to create efficient movement
Attaches muscles to bones
Inelastic, very strong
Allow movement to take place as they pull the muscle across the joints.
acts a a secondary joint stabililser
Strong fibrous bands that connect bone to bone and cross over joints

They are relatively inelastic and tighten when a joint is underpressure

Provide stability and prevent excessive movements (preventing dislocation)

Have low blood supply and have difficulty repairing themselves.
Types of Joints
1- IMMOVABLE (FIBROUS)
Bones are fixed or fused together and no movement is possible eg- skull/pelvis

2- SLIGHTLY MOVABLE (CARTILAGENOUS)
Bones are joined by cartilage and only a small amount of movement is possible eg- ribs joining sternum, vertebrae

3- FREELY MOVABLE (SYNOVIAL)
Allow free movement in at least one direction. They have cartilage, ligaments and lubricating fluid
Most joints in the body are synovial joints eg knee, shoulder, hip, ankle.
There are 6 different types of synovial joints.
This is the most movable joint in the body
One bone has a ball like a bulge on one end.This fits into a socket in the other bone
It can turn in many directions

Examples -
Ball and Socket
This works like a hinge on a door. The bone can swing back and forward
The end of one bone is shaped like the spool of thread. It fits into a hollow on the other.
The joint will open until it is straight, but no further.

Example -
Hinge Joint
Gliding Joint
Pivot Joint
One bone has a bit that juts out, like a peg or a ridge. This fits into a ring or notch on the other bone
This joint allows only rotation

Example -

(palm up, palm down)
Here the ends of the bones are shaped like saddles and fit snugly together (like a jockey sitting on horses saddle)
The joint allows movement back and forward and from side to side


Example -
(the only one in your body)
Saddle Joint
The ends of the bones are flat enough to glide over each other.

This joint gives the least movement.

Examples-
A rounded bump on one bone sits in a hollow formed by another bone or bones
The joint allows movement back and forward and from side to side. Ligaments prevent the bones from rotating

Examples -
Condyloid Joint
The Vertebral Column
Protects the spine and provides support and structure.
It is divided into 5 sections
Cervical (7
Thoracic 12)
Lumbar (5)
Sacrum (5 bones fused together)
Coccyx (3)
Full transcript