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Transcript of Jazz
Melody Origins of Jazz Music
"The Great Ethnic Melting Pot" New Orleans
European rhythmic and
harmonic practices Improvisation Influential People in Jazz George Gershwin
Louis Armstrong George Gershwin Born in 1898 in Brooklyn, New York
Helped bridge the gap between classical
orchestral music and jazz
Began playing professional piano at age 15 after dropping out of school
Musical career took off with the publication of "Swanee"
Most famous piece entitled "Rhapsody in Blue" Jim Europe Rose to popularity in 1912 when he and his band played Carnegie Hall
Served as a lieutenant in the 369th Infantry Regiment of the U.S. Army aka "The Harlem Hellfighters"
Jim Europe Band played all over Europe and gained popularity among British, French and American infantries
Another big "shaper" of jazz in Harlem
Ellington's last Presented by: Ian Sadock, Molly McLaughlin, Lauren Jones and Ryan McGilloway Jazz Notation Orchestration Rhythm Harmony/Form Melody King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band (1923)
Cornets (2) -- Louis Armstrong (2nd)
Clarinet Jazz Orchestra Combo Swing ->
"Democratization of rhythmic values"
Interpretation "Early Afro-American music had no harmony" - Schuller Took cues from African harmony "Blue" notes - unique to Afro-America "The blues chord progression of I-IV-I-V-I represented a horizontalized form of the primary intervals used by these fourths- and fifths-tribes." Duke Ellington One of the "founding fathers" of jazz
Born April 29, 1899 in Washington, D.C.
Reinvented the configuration of the orchestra- today known as "Big Band"
Invited to join Wilber Sweatman Orchestra in New York- caused his move to Harlem
Key player in the music scene of the Harlem Renaissance Louis Armstrong Born August 4, 1901 in New Orleans
Began his music career in Chicago, which was considered to be the birthplace of jazz
Mentored by Joe "King" Oliver
Invited to join Oliver's Creole Jazz Band as a trumpeter
Played with Fletcher Henderson's band in New York
Gained considerable fame as a solo artist later in life
Became the first African American Musician to write an autobiography Jazz
Culture Young, middle class whites appropriate black culture Flappers and "flaming youth"
Rebellion against society and parents' morals
"White Negroes"- Mezz Mezzrow
Leads to white interpretation of music and culture Radio Broadcasting- live concerts ASCAP- American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers NAB- National Association of Broadcasting VS Black success on the radio: New York and Chicago
Duke Ellington Orchestra, 1927-1930: 200+ radio shows
TOBA Vaudeville Circuit
Race Records Clergy
New York Times
Other Examples "Does Jazz Put the Sin in Syncopation?" Anne Shaw Faulkner "That it has a demoralizing effect upon the human brain has been demonstrated by many scientists." White Opposition "Jazz is retrogression. It is going to the African jungle for our music." -rector of the Episcopal church of Ascension in NYC, 1922 "Such music has become an influence for evil." Black Opposition Rejected by "talented 10th" types
Ignored in literature "The Journal of Negro History" (1916-1946)
"The Negro in Literature and Art" -Brawley (1918)
"Black Folk Then and Now" -DuBois (1939) Positive Press Otto Kahn (1924)
President of the National Federation of Music Clubs (1927)
International Acceptance "There is a vast amount of talent among players and composers of jazz."-Otto Kahn, 1924 Harlem, NY The Jazz Center of the North: with migrating blacks. Harlem was flooded Migrants brought their southern tunes with them. The ensuing mixture created a spark that ignited an entire cities fever for jazz. Harlem: Harlem Night Life Savoy Ballroom Cotton Club Apollo Theatre Roseland Ballroom Duke Ellington Louis Armstrong Jazz and Renaissance Migrant Musicians The Great Migration Southern Families came North searching for jobs created by World War One. The "Home of Happy Feet" First integrated club that supported fun for all Home of famous dances such as : The One Step The Black Bottom The Charleston Jazz also affected the literary parts of the Harlem Renaissance. -Cane -Autobiography of an
Ex-Colored Man Gatsby -The Great