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Guns Germs and Steel
Transcript of Guns Germs and Steel
Episode I. Out of Eden (50 minutes)
In the three-episode series, Jared Diamond talks about how guns, germs and steel have shaped human history and affected the human societies. This programme is a summary of his book of the same title. Your task is to watch the first two episodes and take notes under these headings. After viewing, you are going to write a summary.
Task 1. View the first 26 minutes of Episode 1 (Out of Eden) and fill in the gaps with the ideas from the video.
Jared Diamond is a 1.___________________ and loves birds. His journey of discovery began on the island of Papua New Guinea in the year 2. __________________. A local man named Yali asked a simple question: Why you white man have so much cargo and we New Guineans have so little? He realized that the question is at the heart of human history and the roots of global inequality. Why were Europeans the ones with all the cargo? By cargo, New Guineans meant 3. _____________________ which were brought by Westerners. Cargo was the symbol of white men’s power and dominance. Westerners also believed they were genetically 4.______________________ to the native population.
Diamond knew the inequality was not related to ingenuity or individual skill. He claimes that all great civilizations have some things in common: advanced technology, 5.______________________, and well-organized 6._________________________.
He knew he had to travel back in time to the first civilizations to find the answers. The Ice Age was over 7.____________________ years ago. The people in the 8._________________________ (the Fertile Crescent) survived by hunting and gathering the available wild animals. The problem with hunting is that hunting 9.____________________________. Therefore, gathering is easier. The people there started to grow two cereal grasses, namely barley and wheat.
However, a catastrophe occurred. About 12,500 years ago, there was an environmental disaster. The 10.___________________________ lasted 1000 years. So a new way of life began to emerge. Archaeologists found the remains of the earliest permanent villages near the 11.__________________________, a place called Dhra. They found the first granary (where the people stored their food). They grew barley and wheat because they were 12.___________________________. As a result of the drought, people started to grow their own food. In other words, the Stone Age people of the Middle East were becoming the first 13._________________________. They managed to select the biggest and hardest seeds and thus transformed the plants’ DNA. This human interference is called 14.___________________________. After the Middle East, China and central and southern America grew other types of grain. In New Guinea farmers also started farming around 15.__________________________ years ago—almost the same time as the Middle East. But why was there a difference?
Task 2. Second part (26 minutes-50 minutes) of Episode I. Watch the rest of the episode and fill the gaps in the summary.
Crops like toro roots in New Guinea are not as useful as wheat because they 16. _______________________________________, so they need other supplements like spiders.
Diamond also realized that 17.____________________ of farming is as important as the invention of farming. People who had the most productive crops became the most productive farmers. Americans, for example, had a big advantage because the crops that they grew are more 18.______________and ___________________.
Apart from farming, there was another important factor. About 19._____________ years ago humans began to domesticate animals. They used animals for their milk, which is source of 20.___________________, hair and skin. The first animals to be domesticated were 21.____________ and _________________ in the ancient world. Big farm animals were harnessed to a plough and this enabled farmers to 22.________________ and thus feed more people. However, in New Guinea people never used a plough as they had no animals to pull it.
Diamond made a list of animals. The number of animal species is 23._________ ______ and of these the best animals for domestication are 24.______________and ________________ mammals. Not every animal is eligible for domestication. There are some criteria for it. One important requirement is that the domestic animals should 25.____________________________. Some wild animals such as zebra is not ideal for domestication because it is a 26._____________________ creature. Diamond counted 148 good candidates for domestication but only 14 of them were domesticated. 13 of them were from Asia, North Africa and Europe. The people in Fertile Crescent had a big advantage because 27.____________________ and _________________________ were in this region. In time, these first farmers formed the first small villages. They also developed new skills besides farming. For example, they invented 28.__________________________ from limestone (kireç taşı) to build their houses.
Diamond considers the situation in New Guinea and draws a conclusion: The reason why New Guineans didn’t have advanced technology is that they spent too much time and energy 29._________________ ____________.
In the Fertile Crescent, people had to abandon their land within 1000 years of the emergence of the villages because people 30.____________________________. As a result, they moved to the places from east to west in Eurasia with the same latitude (enlem) because the same latitude meant that there was similar 31.________________________ and _____________________. So they were able to apply the skills they learnt in their homeland.
Finally Diamond concludes that the reason why New Guineans are left behind is that they didn’t have 32._________________________ ______ as the Europeans.
Top Documentaries link
DVD- GUNS, GERMS AND STEEL – by Jared Diamond – National Geographic
Superior (adj.) = better, higher (X inferior)
Equality (n) X inequality = the state pf being equal
Hunter-gatherer (society) = societies which make a living by hunting
Have’s and have not’s = those who have sth versus those who don’t have sth.
Scarcity (n.) = when something is not easy to find or obtain:
Arid land = dry land
Shelter (n.) = a building that provides protection
Barley = arpa
Primitive (adj.) = relating to human society at a very early stage of development (ilkel)
To plough land = to dig the land (saban)
Game (n.) := wild animals that humans hunt for sport or food.
Fertile Crescent = bereketli hilal (Mezopotamia)
To abandon= to leave
Raw materials : ham madde
•factors which have led to the global dominance of Eurasians in Jared Diamond’s book
to acquire a key advantage
the fall/rise of an empire/civilisation
to have an extraordinary advantage over others
have the potential to do sth to have a difficult time doing
Task 2: Write the appropriate forms of the words in brackets.
1. Oil spills have _________ (devastate) effects on the environment.
2. The bomb caused widespread _________________ (devastate).
3. The _____________ (dominance) gorilla is the largest in the group.
4. Her loud voice totally ______________ (dominance) the conversation.
5. The project has benefitted _______________ (enormous) from Jan’s experience.
6. The teacher was shouting at some _____________ (fortunate) student.
7. ____________ (fortunate), the international community has put an end to biological warfare, hasn’t it?
8. Political prisoners are usually held in complete _____________ (isolated).
9. prisons usually ____________ (isolated) political prisoners from the other prisoners.
10. The police are investigating the ______________ (mystery) deaths of children at the hospital.
11. Jackson had _________________ (mystery) disappeared.
12. Many managers are _________________ (resistance) to change.
13. It is very difficult to _________________ (resistance) the temptation of chocolate. (by Eylem Mengi)
Skim the text in 7 mins and match the following headings with the paragraph numbers in the text The Fates of Human Societies:
a. Relationship between high population and technological development _________
b. Eurasians getting information from other cultures easily _________
c. Eurasians using disease as a weapon against other nations _________
d. Better development of agriculture in Eurasia _________
e. Mystery about West side of Eurasia’s developing rather than the East _________
f. Strong immunity system _________
Skim the text in 7 mins and match the following headings with the paragraph numbers in the text The Fates of Human Societies:
a. Relationship between high population and technological development 6
b. Eurasians getting information form other cultures easily 9
c. Eurasians using disease as a weapon against other nations 10
d. Better development of agriculture in Eurasia 3
e. Mystery about West side of Eurasia’s developing 11
f. Strong immunity system 4
INPUT 4-ALTERNATIVE COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS
Read the text and answer the questions below.
1. Which countries were not invaded by the Eurasians for a long time?
2. Why did the people in the Middle East have big population density?
3. What were two advantages of having a variety of animal species for the Middle Eastern societies?
4. What were the two factors that helped the spread of agricultural technologies in Europe?
5. Why did corn arrive late in the USA?
6. Do we know why Indian Ocean traders didn’t teach North African skills and knowledge to the highlanders?
7. Why was a large population an advantage?
8. What helped Eurasians to dominate so many countries apart from technological development in agriculture and other areas?
9. What are the important inventions that contributed to the improvement and dominance of Europeans?
10. Does Diamond explain in his book the dominance of Europe over the rest of Eurasia?
11. Guess the meanings of the following words from the text.
a. germinate (paragraph 7) : __________________________
b. diffuse (paragraph 8) : __________________________
c. decimated (paragraph 10) : _______________________
Input 4 ANSWER KEY
1. China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Ethiopia
2. The plants they domesticated were the easiest to tame and grew fastest and had the largest seed.
3. a.More productive therefore higher population density
b. strong immunity system
4. a. Similar climate b. size of Europe and not having important geographic obstacle
5. ecological difference; it was more suitable for Mexico’s ecology.
6. No, we don’t. It is a mystery.
7. It fostered creativity. They created more inventions and spread them.
8. They spread disease around and their immune system was strong.
9. Compass, gunpowder, block printing, the zero.
10. No, he doesn’t.
11. a. Start to grow
b. spread widely
c. kill large numbers of animals, plants, people // damage
input3 vocab revision by Sonat D. Kahoot
Discussion Questions with TLP Vocabulary - Unit 8 Input 3
39. Name two places you know with a high concentration of germs.
36. Are there any beneficial effects of germs? What are they?
37. Name two diseases which have ceased to exist in Turkey in the last few decades.
41. What is one disease that you are immune to? Why? (see TLP list for another useful word)
38. 42. 49. What’s the difference between a serious outbreak of a disease, an epidemic, and a pandemic?
49. When was the last serious outbreak of a disease in Turkey or elsewhere?
40. What’s the difference between a human and humanity?
41. What are two things that advertisers do to persuade us to buy their products?
46. What’s a synonym for lethal? Can you think of a collocation with “lethal” apart from “weapon”?
• (synonym) lethal (collocation)
47. Do you know any myths about medical treatments? Did your grandparents ever tell you about any medical treatments which we know are not true?
48. Which of these places do you not find nutrients? Why?
a) the soil b) the fridge c) stones
50. When was the most famous outbreak of the plague in Europe?