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Transcript of The Renaissance
Francisco The Renaissance 1450-1650 Renaissance Architecture Filippo Brunelleschi designed the largest and most famous dome of all time, the Florence Cathedral
Brunelleschi rediscovered it by studying the dome in the Pantheon (the ancient Roman Temple)
In the fourth century AD (400AD) Roman Emperor Constantine becomes Christian. From that time onwards Christianity becomes the official religion of Rome Florence Cathedral The Pantheon, Rome In 609 the Pantheon became a Christian church Andrea Palladio (Italian Architect) Palladio was famous for designing large house called 'villas'
He used domed roofs, rounded arches and 'porticos' (front porches) that looked like front of ancient Greek or Roman temples
His 'Palladian' style was used throughout the world to build important public buildings and houses for the very wealthy Palladain Style Artists from outside of Italy The Northern Renaissance From 1500 onwards the Renaissance spread beyond Italy to England, the Netherlands and Germany
Artists from Northern European countries visited and worked with Italian artists, learned their skills and brought these skills back to their own countries
Where have we seen this before in the Renaissance? The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait by
Jan Van Eyck The Night Watch by Rembrandt van Rijn Albrecht Durer - A German Artist Albrecht Durer - A 'self portrait'
What does this mean? A Young Hare The Knight, Death and the Devil Renaissance Science Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) was a priest who had taken a special interest in 'astronomy' (the study of stars and planets)
Up to then people believed that the earth stood still and that the sun revolved around it
Copernicus believed that the earth turned on its axis (spinned) and revolved around the sun
He wrote his beliefs in a book called 'On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres'
He knew that the Church would object to his theories so he allowed his book to when he was close to death Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Professor of Mathematics at the University of Pisa in Italy
One of the most famous scientists of all time
He discovered that 'objects of different weights' fell at the same speed He developed the pendulum clock from observing the movements of a lamp swinging in the breeze in the Pisa Cathedral
When he heard a Dutch man had invented a telescope so he invented a more powerful one that could enlarge objects a thousand times 'Galileo saw things that no human being had seen before' With the use of a more powerful telescope he discovered that:
surface of the moon was rough
that Saturn is encircled by rings and that
Jupiter has four moons Galileo's study of astronomy proved to him that Copernicus's theories were right and that 'the earth revolved around the sun'
He published his theory in a book called 'The Dialogue' which he wrote in Italian
The leaders of Catholic church were furious. Not only had Galileo had seemed to have contradicted the Bible, but had done so in the 'vernacular' Galileo summoned before the Inquisition This Catholic Court imprisoned and threatened Galileo with torture unless he went back on his beliefs about the earth orbiting the sun
Galileo - then an old man of seventy - gave in
He said his ideas were wrong and he was then allowed to return to his home.
He remained under 'house arrest' (confined to his house and garden) for the rest of his life Today we are going to look at.... The Importance of Modern Printing to the Renaissance
The Invention of Modern Printing (Johann Guttenberg)
How a Printing Press works The Importance of Printing during the Renaissance Large numbers of cheap books were produced so more people could afford to buy them
More people wanted to learn how to read and write. Levels of literacy and education began to improve
New Renaissance and Reformation ideas spread quickly throughout Europe because more people could read about them
Books helped create standard agreed versions of most European languages The Invention of Modern Printing Johann Gutenberg a goldsmith from the city Mainz (Germany) invented modern printing
Before Gutenberg's time all books were (handwritten) manuscripts, or were made by wooden block printing
This involved carving a complete page of words into a wooden block, inking the block and then pressing it onto a sheet of parchment or vellum. This was very slow and costly - rare and expensive
In the 1450s Guttenburg invented moveable metal type and the printing press
Read p78 Middle to see how the printing press works
Guttenberg's new system made printing much easier and cheaper than before. Other printers copied his methods so that by 1500 over a million books were printed throughout Europe Developments in literature during the Renaissance The invention of the printing press encouraged the development of literature
In medieval books and documents were usually written in Latin, which was the language of educated people
Printers wanted to make more money so they decided to print books in the 'vernacular' or spoken language of the people
From that time onwards, more and more books were written in the vernacular The Renaissance produced great vernacular writers William Shakespeare wrote ? Petrarch wrote fourteen line poems called 'sonnets' Cervantes wrote Don Quixote William Shakespeare - an English writer One of the greatest playwrights of all time
Wrote in the vernacular (spoken language of the people)
Born in Stratford on Avon near Birmingham in 1564
He married Anne Hathaway (she was eight years older) They had two daughters and a son, who died at the age of eleven
While in his twenties he went to London and became an actor and play writer of with a theatre group called 'The King's men' The King's men perfomed in the Globe Theatre Shakespeare soon became so famous as a playwright that several of his plays were performed before of Queen Elizabeth I
His most famous plays included tragedies, such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet and Macbeth
These were people doomed to die largely because of faults in their characters
He wrote comedies which are plays with happy endings : The Merchant of Venice, A MIdsummer Night's Dream
Historical plays: Julius Caesar, Anthony and Cleopatra Some results of the Renaissance Art was changed forever by the development of 'perspective' and 'sfumato'
People began to question old ideas. New religious ideas helped to lead to the Protestant Reformation
The mass production of books following the invention of the printing press encouraged the development of education
New ideas on Geography encouraged voyages of discovery to America and other lands
The discoveries of people such as Galieo and William Harvey led to great improvements in science and medicine