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AP Psychology- The Sense of Taste (Gustation)
Transcript of AP Psychology- The Sense of Taste (Gustation)
Sweet Sour Bitter Umami Salty Sweet Note: These are the locations where the threshold sensitivity is greatest. Every taste bud has equal "detection" of each taste. The most sensitive of the tastes. Examples: coffee, unsweetened cocoa, olives, citrus peel, marmalade, beer. Evolutionary standpoint: We tend to avoid bitter foods, as many natural bitter compounds are known to be toxic. Sense of taste that detects acidity. Examples: naturally sour fruits (lemons, oranges, grapes), wine, sour candy (Lemon Drops, Warheads). Japanese term for "meatiness". Sense of taste associated with detecting savoriness in food.
-Discovered in 1908.
MSG is strongest source of umami flavor. Examples: cheese, soy sauce, tomatoes, shittake mushrooms, beans, fish, and meat. Evolutionary standpoint: "meaty" foods contained proteins that aided in tissue growth and reparation. Sense of taste due to the detection of alkali metal ions (primarily the Sodium ion, which every other salty flavor is based off of). Evolutionary standpoint: salty foods contained the sodium essential to physiological processes. Examples: table salt, capers, fast food, potato chips, and foods that are high in Sodium. Foods rich in simple carbohydrates, such as sugar, sweetened chocolate, cakes (most dessert foods), and some common berries (blueberries, strawberries, and cherries). Evolutionary standpoint- sweet foods were sought by our ancestors due to their energy-dense qualities. Highest taste recognition threshold How do we taste? Evolutionary standpoint: Our ancestors avoided sour foods, as most sour foods were potentially toxic acids. - Papillae contain taste buds that transmit the sensation of taste. - Stimulation produces saliva. - Electrical impulse created by taste bud's gustatory receptor cells. - Impulse travels down nerves under tongue to the brain, where it is analyzed and results in the perception of taste. - Gustatory hairs detect the presence of food, beginning the process of tasting. - Molecules enter the taste pore and interact with gustatory hairs. 1. Taste Pore 2. Gustatory Hairs 3. Gustatory Receptor Cells 4. Cranial Nerve (Afferent Nerve) Impulse>>>>>>> What factors affect our perception of taste? Mood
- Brain initiates taste
- Anxious, Depressed: "cardboard" taste
- Stressed: Sugar and carb based food boosts our level of serotonin Aging
- Taste buds wear out
- Disappear from sides and roof of mouth
- Remaining taste buds become less sensitive
- Ability to smell decreases Gustatory Activity What are some of the abnormalities of the sense of taste? Supertasters- greater intensity of taste.
- Increased amount of fungiform papillae
- More common in women
- Advantage: can avoid more subtle hints of toxins
- Identifying a supertaster: PROP
- Compare reaction of PROP (propylthiouracil) to salt solution, and if taster gives 2x amount bitterness rating, it's official. - Specific sensitivity to: coffee, soy, carbonated beverages, green tea, alcoholic beverages, and brussels sprouts.
- TAS2R38 (bitter receptor) associated w/ ability to taste PROP (Taste receptor 2 member 38). Ageusia- Reduced perception of taste functions
- Neurological damage
- Endocrine system problems
- Local damage and inflammation
- Taste sensitivity from aging
- Chemotherapy Dysgeusia- Distortion of taste (altered)
- tests for sucrose, citric acid, salt, caffeine
- 3 drop test
Super threshold tests
- intensities of taste stimuli
- assess difference between intensities
- Direct scaling
- Taste buds
- Zinc deficiency
- pons, thalamus, and midbrain injury
- Zinc infusion to chemotherapy
- Artificial saliva
- weight loss
-depression Ageusia Research of taste in mice Geneticists discovered calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) on the tongues of mice.
- Evolutionary standpoint- calcium aids bone durability/growth CD36 Receptor, which is sensitive to "fattiness" in food, was also found on the tongues of mice.
- CD36 is a protein in the body that senses the presence of fatty acids
- Trial done in humans Tasting with Somatosensory System Coolness- activates cold receptors even if food is not cold
- "fresh" or "minty" sensation
- Examples: spearmint, menthol, ethanol Dryness- foods that have astringent (rough) sensation
- most unripe fruits have this taste
- Examples: unripe bananas, tea, red wine, and rhubarb Hotness- activates heat receptors even if food is not hot
- Sensation known as chemesthesis (chemical sensibility) which is a multi-sensory perception
- Primarily elicited through the inclusion of spice to food
- Examples: chili and black pepper, ginger, horseradish Expectation Affects Perception!