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Multimedia Learning

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Xiang Qin Leow

on 18 April 2016

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Transcript of Multimedia Learning

Multimedia Learning
Managing Essential Processing
6. Segmenting Principle
7. Pre-training Principle
8. Modality Principle
Reducing Extraneous Processing
1. Coherence Principle
2. Signaling Principle
3. Redundancy Principle
4. Spatial Contiguity Principle
5. Temporal Contiguity Principle
Fostering Generative Processing
9. Multimedia Principle
10. Personalization
11. Voice
12. Image Principles
Multimedia Learning
Learners learn better from words and pictures.
Richard E. Mayer
University of California, Santa Barbara
(Cambridge University Press, 2009)

Three Views of Multimedia Messages
1. Delivery media: computer screens, video, speaker...
2. Presentation mode: Verbal & Pictorial Representations
3. Sensory Modalities: Auditory & Visual Senses
Design of Multimediaa Instructional Messages
1. Technology-centered approach
2. Learner-centered approach
Multimedia Learning can be viewed:
1. Response Strengthening
2. Information Acquisition
3. Knowledge Construction
3 Possible Learning Outcomes
1. No Learning
2. Rote Learning
3. Meaningful Learning
Cognitive Activity
Behavioral Activity
93 experiments:
3 Cognitive Load
12 Principles Multimedia Design
Does Multimedia Work?
Present multimedia explanation using both words and pictures than using words alone
Measured by: Determining whether it promotes transfer - being able to use the material in the presentation to solve new problems

10 features:
1. Coherence
2. Signaling
3. Redundancy
4. Spatial
5. Temporal
6. Segmenting
7. Pre-training
8. Modality
9. Personalization
10. Voice
When does Multimedia Work
Image: Not much evidence, maybe "instructor's image" is helpful; more research needed.
Not all multimedia messages are equally effective
Work best for learners who are low rather than high in prior knowledge about the subject matter
For Whom Does Multimedia Work?
Individual Differences Principle, (Mayer 2001)
Expertise Reverse Effect (Kalyuga, 2005)
more research is needed.
Well-designed multimedia presentations work best when the material is complex and presented at a rapid pace for the learner
For What Kinds of Material Does Multimedia Work
more research is needed.
However, there maybe differences in the effectiveness of the design principles depending on the type of material: GOAL (to help people to understand facts, concepts, procedures, strategies, or beliefs.)
How Does Multimedia Work?
People have separated visual and auditory channels
Channels are limited in capacity
Meaningful Learning involves actively:
12 Principles of
Multimedia Presentation
Computer-based Multimedia Presentations
Book-based Multimedia Presentations
What Makes an Effective Multimedia Presentation?
1. Presentation: Words & Pictures
2. Animation & Narration: Simultaneously
3. Only the CORE cause-and-effect explanation presented ( X extranenous words sounds, pictures)
4. Words: Speech (narration), X text.

===The presentation must be channeled:
Words --- Auditory
Pictures --- Visual

1. Presentation: Words & Pictures
2. Integrated: Corresponding text & illustrations - next to each other
3. Only the CORE cause-and-effect explanation presented ( X extranenous text and illustrations)

=== The illustration should consist of a series of frames depicting various states of the system;
===== each frame should include text describing the state of the system in words.
The Building Blocks of

"Concise Narrated Animation (CNA)"
The Building Blocks of
"Concise Annotated Illustration (CAI)"

Conversation Style
rather than
Formal Style
Dual Channels
3 Assumptions of a Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
Limited Capacity
Active Processing
Model of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
Humans are limited in the amount of information can be processed in each channel at one time.
Baddley's Theory of Working Memory (1992, 1999)
Sweller's Cognitve Load Theory (1999, 2005a; Chandler and Sweer, 1991)
Human actively engage in cognitive processing in order to construct a coherent mental representation of their expectations.
Selecting, Organising, Integrating (
caused by confusing instructional design
caused by the complexity of the material
caused by motivation of learner
Design or re-design your existing power point slide using the 12 principles of multimedia design.
6 Questions About Multimedia

Richer Mayer (2009)
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