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Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

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on 23 October 2013

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Transcript of Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
Etymology/Origins
Before midterms we spoke about root words and prefixes.

"De"- out, away.
"In" = Not or Non.

3 Pillars of public speaking
Logos = Logic (Inductive & Deductive)
Patos = Feelings
Ethos = Ethics.
Deductive Reasoning.
Deductive reasoning is also known as the top down approach. It starts of with general information and then moves to a specific conclusion.
Who/How is deductive reasoning used?
Deductive reasoning is mostly used to test hypotheses and theories.

Used By?
Scientists
Investigators
Mathematicians
Us.
Examples of Deductive reasoning.(Valid)
A simple deductive argument could be:

Premise 1: All politicians are liars.

Premise 2: John is a politician.

Conclusion: John is a liar.

Introduction
Our main goal of the presentation is to be able to differentiate between deductive and inductive reasoning and to apply the concept appropriately.
What are they?
How are they used?
What is the difference?
Inductive and deductive reasoning.
To arrive at the correct conclusion it is expected that your initial premise is correct. A premise is a statement on which another is based.
Little Side note.
"Valid and Invalid"
There could be “valid” and “in valid” deductive arguments.
Valid deductive arguments must provide successfully logical support for its’ conclusion. So, there is no possible way for the information to be false. However, logic does not equate truth or validity. This means it is possible for a valid deductive argument to be false.

Invalid deductive reasoning does not follow logically from the premise.

Example:

Premise 1: All politicians are liars

Premise 2: All vehicle salespersons are liars

Conclusion: All politicians are vehicle salespersons.

Example two Deductive reasoning. (Invalid)
Inductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning is the direct opposite of deductive reasoning. Instead of starting with a general statement it begins with a specific statement and moves to a general conclusion.
Who and How is inductive reasoning used.
scientific discoveries

generating hypothesis

Formulating theories & discovering relationships.
Inductive reasoning example.
Premise 1: Most phones vibrate

Premise 2: Samsung S5698 is a phone

Conclusion: Samsung S5698 probably vibrates

Advantage/Disadvantage of inductive reasoning.
Advantage: Can start with little information and lead to specific conclusion with observations.

Disadvantage: conclusions can tentative.
Advantage/Disadvantage of deductive reasoning.
Advantage: truths established are absolute
once valid.

Disadvantage: True specific details must be previously known.
Conclusion
Deductive and inductive arguments both have their places. These two types of reasoning styles are used for research.

So, we could say that good deductive arguments starts with true premises also said to be a sound argument. And, strong inductive arguments starts with strong premises but, there is no truth.
Full transcript