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Chemistry of Life

PreAP notes

Vanita Vance

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of Chemistry of Life

The Chemistry of Life Basic Vocabulary
Organic compound - carbon containing compound
Macromolecule - giant molecule made of units called monomers
Polymer - chain of smaller similar molecules (monomers) Processing: draw a polymer on your processing page using monomers like this: 4 classes of organic compounds: carbohydrates - sugars & starches
lipids - fats, oils, waxes, steroids
nucleic acids - DNA & RNA
proteins - make up cell structures, enzymes; the meat in your diet Processing: start a concept map like this in the center of your processing page: Classes of Organic Compounds What are carbohydrates?
CHO - 1:2:1 ratio Functions:
main source of energy in cells
make up structures - cellulose in cell walls Carbohydrates are polymers of simple sugar molecules (monosaccharides) Monosaccharide: Glucose Carbohydrate vocabulary - copy in notes & give functions:
glycogen Processing:
What CLASSES of organic compounds are found on the soup label? Important Reactions: Dehydration synthesis
(condensation) hydrolysis combines monomers by removing water from between breaks monomers apart by adding water back putting monosaccharides together to make disaccharides & polysaccharides by removing a water molecule splitting a larger molecule by adding water - opposite of dehydration synthesis What are lipids?
hydrophobic compounds
made of CHO - NOT 1:2:1 Functions:
store energy in body, insulation lipids are polymers of glycerol and fatty acids (long chains of C and H) Two types of lipids: Saturated -
no double bonds between carbon atoms unsaturated -
at least one double bond between carbon atoms What are steroids? Cholesterol - ring structure makes the basic structure - found in cell membranes hormones - like estrogen & testosterone anabolic steroids - use is illegal; cause loss of bone mass, tissue damage, personality changes Phospholipids:
special lipids with hydrophobic tails & hydrophilic ends - make up cell membranes Lipid vocabulary - copy in notes & define:
cholesterol What are proteins?
molecules made of long chains of amino acids - CHON Functions:
make up cell parts enzymes & hormones an amino group, a carboxyl group, & a unique "R" group Amino acids have 3 different parts: There are 20 different amino acids polypeptides -
chains or polymers of amino acids Peptide bond:
forms between the carboxyl group of 1 amino acid and the amino group of another peptide bonds form by dehydration synthesis - removal of water Important proteins in the body: hemoglobin - gives red color to blood & transports oxygen insulin - controls blood sugar levels; not enough = diabetes antibodies - protect body from infection Proteins have 4 levels of structure Primary - order of amino acids in chain secondary - segments of chains coil (helix) or fold (pleats) Tertiary - 3-dimensional structure of protein molecule Quaternary - larger assembly of multiple protein chains (subunits) What are nucleic acids?
chains of nucleotides
made of CHONP functions:
store genetic information
control cell activities
help make proteins Nucleic Acids will be covered in detail in a later unit nucleotides made of 3 parts:
sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base What determines a protein's shape? the primary structure & the attraction of parts of the chain to each other Why is the protein's shape important? shape determines function primary structure & attraction of different parts of the chain to each other What are enzymes? Biological catalysts that initiate & accelerate chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy Substrate substance changed by the enzyme Energy of Activation Energy required for a chemical change to occur
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