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Mesopotamia

chapters 3-4
by

rich canacci

on 8 October 2015

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Transcript of Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia
chapters 3-6
Mesopotamia
'between two rivers'
-timeline
-food supply
-climate
-physical features
-culture
TIMELINE
8000 BCE - 3000 BCE
Paleolithic - Neolithic Age
towns & villages sprang up east of the Mediterranean
creating a stable food supply meant more people
3500 BCE farming villages transitioned into city-states
by 3000 BCE most Sumerians lived in walled city-states
A Stable Food Supply
Agriculture
(began the Neolithic Age)
-domestication of animals
-growing of crops
-metal tools instead of stone
CLIMATE
The north was hilly and got rain; there was little rain in the south (Sumer) but better soil for farming
Very hot & dry other than the rivers running through
physical features
Tigris River
Euphrates River
Mediterranean Sea
Red Sea
Persian Gulf
Zagros Mountains
Taurus Mountains
Arabian Peninsula (desert)
Villages to City-States
population increase caused move from Zagros foothills to Sumer
creation of farming tactics to control environment including levees & irrigation
trade and water concerns lead to fights with neighbors
around 3500 BC Sumerians go from small farming villages to large walled cities
each City-State was like it's own independent country
by 3000 BC most Sumerians lived in walled city-states
Was Sumer a Civilization?
stable food supply
agriculture, irrigation systems
social structure
class systems
government
god kings, laws / taxes
religion
temples, ceremonies (sacrifices)
arts
painting / architecture / music
technology
plow, wheel, arch
writing
pictograph / cuneiform
Mediterranean
Sea
Persian
Gulf
Zagros Mountains
Taurus Mts.
Arabian (desert)Peninsula
Mesopotamia
city-states
agriculture
domesticate
Sumer / Sumerians
irrigation systems
levee
social structure
chariot
scribe
ziggurat
arch
pictograph
cuneiform
vocab.
Red
Sea
Tigris River
Euphrates River
A
C
B
D
E
F
G
Label These
H
4 Empires of Mesopotamia
Akkadian

Babylonian

Assyrian

Neo-Babylonian
Akkadian Empire
first empire
2300-2100 BCE
Sargon became first ruler
strong king & skilled general
large powerful military
ingenious strategies
shield / spear formation
political strategies
destroyed city walls
loyal governors
demanded son replaced him after his death
Agade -richest, cultural center, most powerful city in the world
used Sumerian gods, irrigation systems, and cuneiform
Babylonian Empire
King Hammurabi of Babylon
Code of Laws (1792-1750 BC)
first that applied to everyone
can never be change (from the gods)
built roads, postal service
important center of trade
unusually fair society
slaves could work for wages, own property, and even buy their freedom
women could own property, and keep money
Assyrian Empire
900-612 BC
expanded through military might
trained army
perfected use of horses & iron weapons
siege tactic
battering rams & movable towers
propaganda strategy
tales of cruelty and military might
Nineveh -capital city
built beautiful palaces
built earliest aqueducts
brought water from 30 miles away
sculpture & craftsmen
bas-reliefs
Neo-Babylonian Empire
king Nebuchardrezzar reigned 605-562 BCE
rebuilt the ziggurat
built fortifications around the capital city of Babylon
double wall
guard towers
moat
decorated the palace with The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world
became skilled mathematicians & astronomers
created the first sundial
discoveries led to the seven day week & sixty minute hour

conquered by the Persians (king Cyrus) in 539 BC
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon
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