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WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?
Transcript of WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?
The study of groups, organizations, social relationships and culture changes
The study of social life, social change, and the social causes of human behavior
Seeks to understand all aspects of human behavior
The study of society
Sociology analyzes and explains important matters in our personal lives, communities and the world.
SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES AND THEORISTS
Unofficial founder of Positivism; the idea of applying the scientific method to the real world.
Introduced the social conflict theory to sociology, and believed in class conflict.
Social Conflict Theory
Society is composed of groups battling for scarce resources.
Thought societies evolved from lower or higher forms; "survival of the fittest"
Said human behavior cannot be understood simply in individualistic terms, we must examine social forces that affect our lives
Case Studies are when an investigator studies a group of individuals with an unusual condition or situation.
Surveys include interviewing or handing out questionnaires to large amounts of people to receive a group census.
Observational Research includes directly observing subjects' reactions either in a laboratory or natural setting.
Experimental Research is used to determine how or why something happens.
Sociologists use Cross-Culture Research to reveal variations across different groups of people.
NORMS, VALUES AND BELIEFS
Material Culture are things like jewelry, art, and hairstyles. There is nothing natural about it.
Non material culture is a groups way of thinking (beliefs, values and other assumptions of the world).
Gestures involve using one's body to communicate with others
Language is a system of symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought
Social norms are rules of behavior that develop out of a group's values, they are expected.
Secondary Groups are larger than primary, and share the same interest whether it be work, sports, political parties ect.
In Groups are groups toward which we feel loyal
Out Groups are groups toward which we feel antagonized
Reference groups are groups that we use as a standard to evaluate ourselves. When we have to make big decisions, we think about how they will judge it.
In most countries woman and men are not treated equally. Some are forbidden to drive, while others have extreme clothing requirements.
African Americans were looked down upon by many people in our country for a very long time
Age Discrimination is when people of different ages (obviously) are treated unfairly. Whether it is in the workplace, or just in society.
Each level of the organizational chart assigns tasks or responsibilities to the level beneath it.
All workers have a specific task to fill within the division of labor.
The OFFICE is important, not the person holding the office.
STATUS AND ROLES
A Social Status is the position the someone occupies within society
Ascribed Status is the involuntary status that is yours at birth. For example, color, race ect.
Status symbols are used to identify a status
Status Inconsistency is when two or more statuses do not fit together.
Gender Socialization is when things that get pushed toward a certain gender.
Culture Socialization is how people of different cultures are taught to do things
Children learn to role play to understand how others feel and think
SUBCULTURES AND COUNTERCULTURES
Consists of people whose experiences have led them to have distinctive ways of looking at life
The KKK is a negative counterculture. They influenced society in a bad way
A world within the larger world of dominant culture
There can be both positive and negative countercultures. Hippies are positive. They had a good impact on society
Counterculture groups' values and norms place them at odds with the dominant culture
Primary Groups are characterized by intimate, long term, face to face association and cooperation.
Charles Cooley was a Symbolic Interactionist, he used the term "Looking-Glass Self to describe the process by which we develop our sense of self
George Mead said play is crucial to the development of the self.
A Master Status cuts across all of the other status you hold. Obama may be African American but he is still the president.
People that are born with a disability are often treated differently, as well as unequally.
Income Inequality is seen all over. People with low income are thought to not be able to succeed or do well in the future compared to those with higher income.
In a Bureaucracy rules are written to stress the proper behavior. The larger the Bureaucracy the more rules.
Written records are kept for everything. Reports are written, and emails or memos are sent. Written, formal evaluations are also done