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A Quick 20th Century Art Talk

Art history by periods
by

Rachel Guthrie

on 27 June 2015

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Transcript of A Quick 20th Century Art Talk

A Brief look at
CUBISM
1908-1914
ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM
(1940-1960)
POP ART
1950-1960
The style was used mainly as a vehicle to expand art,
Cubism is considered the first abstract style of modern art
Cubism was most prominent in Paris, France
Important artists who created in the Cubist style were Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and Juan Gris
The artist portrays his/her subject from multiple points of view
The artist often creates an abstract interpretation of concrete subjects
"Violin and Jug" 1910
Georges Braque,
1882 – 1963
The scene is reconstructed in a series of planes
Cubism is an attempt to see from different perspectives which accounts for the angles and distinctive shifts in Cubist art styles
"Factory, Horta de Ebro" 1909
Pablo Picasso, 1881 – 1973
"Still Life with Chair Caning" 1912, Pablo Picasso, 1881 – 1973
"Viaduct at L'Estaque" 1908, Georges Braque, 1882 – 1963
"Dynamism of a
Soccer Player" 1913
Umberto Boccioni,
1882 - 1916
Summary
Cubism emerged largely as a reaction to modern day innovations.

It was an attempt for art to stay relevant in a modernizing world. Cubism focused on seeing things from multiple view points which explains the somewhat abstract results.
Abstract Impressionism emerged in America,
more specifically, New York City!
Important artists include Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, and Franz Kline.
Emerged as a backlash stemming from the forced conformity of America during the chaos of the
Red Scare
Artists claimed that the act of
creating
art was just as important as the actual art itself
Focused on the expression and
emotional elements
of creating art
Subject is either hard, or impossible to distinguish
Technique called "action painting" used to create this piece, shows the focus on creation
Jackson Pollock, "Full Fanthom Five" 1947
More Characteristics
Spontaneous expression results in bold lines and strokes
No distinguishable subject matter
Franz Kline, "Mahoning" 1956
Willem de Kooning, "Excavation," 1950
Jackson Pollock, "Unformed Figure", 1953
Willem de Kooning, "A Tree In Naples" 1960
Artist: Franz Kline, "Black Reflections" 1959
Abstract Impressionism is relevant because it marks America's introduction as a cultural epicenter. This style of art was largely a reaction against the conformity of America during the Second World War.
Pop Art originated in Great Britain, but was later expanded in the U.S.
Some of the major artists who worked with this style were Andy Warhol, Richard Hamilton, Roy Lichtenstein and Eduardo Palolozzi
Pop Art became prominent during and after World War II, to appeal to the masses and provide a feeling of optimism
Used pop culture to create art that the common population could relate to
Followed youth culture and applied to cornerstones of mass media, mass production, and mass culture
Uses recognizable public figures that the general public are familiar with
Bright colors to reflect the artists personality, or interpretation of their subject
Andy Warhol, "Marilyn Diptych" 1962
A popular technique in Pop Art was to take a famous photograph and paint over it to create a new way to see the image
Created images of well known icons or events and manipulated them to create pieces with universal appeal
Richard Hamilton, "Swinging London 67" 1967
Roy Lichtenstein, "WHAAM!" 1963
Robert Rauschenberg, "Retroactive 1" 1964
Example
Roy Lichtenstein, "The Artist's Studio No. 1 (Look Mickey)" 1973
Summary
Pop Art emerged to create works of art that would appeal to a large demographic. It's use of, and interpretation of iconic figures and events made it accessible to the common man.
modern
(20th Century)

ART
FAUVISM
1904–1908
Fauvism is the style of les Fauves ("the wild beasts"), a loose group of Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values. While Fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910, the movement as such lasted only a few years, 1904–1908, and had
only three exhibitions.Leaders were
Henri Matisse and André Derain.
Modern art includes artistic works
produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s,
and denotes the style and philosophy
of the art produced during that era.
"Portrait of Madame Matisse"
(The Green Stripe) 1906
Henri Matisse, 1869 – 1954
"Woman with a Hat" 1905
Henri Matisse, 1869 – 1954

This work was published before 1923, as it was exhibited in the Salon d'Automne, 1905.

This painting was singled out for attacks, but the work's purchase by Gertrude and Leo Stein had a very positive effect on Matisse
"Self Portrait in Studio,"
Andre Derain, 1880-1954

D
erain and Matisse worked together through the summer of 1905 and later that year displayed their highly innovative paintings at the Salon d'Automne. The vivid, unnatural colors led the critic Louis Vauxcelles to derisively dub their works as les Fauves, or "the wild beasts", marking the start of the Fauvist movement.
"The River Seine at Chatou"
Maurice de Vlaminck 1876–1958
Other important Fauvists were Kees van Dongen, Charles Camoin, Henri-Charles Manguin, Othon Friesz, Jean Puy, Louis Valtat, and Georges Rouault. And in 1906, Georges Braque and Raoul Dufy.

Fauvism was a transitional, learning stage. By 1908, most had rejected the turbulent emotionalism of Fauvism for the logic of Cubism.

Braque became the cofounder with Picasso of Cubism. Derain, after Cubism, painted in a more neoclassical manner, and Matisse alone pursued the course, achieving a balance between his own emotions and the world he painted .
"Portrait of Henri Matisse", 1906
ANDRÉ DERAIN 1880-1954
The Harvest
Raoul Dufy
1877 – 1923
"The Corn Poppy," 1919 Kees Van Dongen 1877 – 1968
Dada
(1916-1923)
•An anti-art movement that started in
Zurich and influenced Surrealism
"Gift" 1921
Man Ray,
1890–1976
"Fountain" 1917
Marcel Duchamp
1887 –1968
"The Elephant Celebes" 1921
Max Earnst,
1891 – 1976
Dadaists believed that 'reason and logic' of bourgeois capitalist society led the people into WWI. They embraced chaos and irrationality and had political affinities with the radical left.
Surrealism
(1924-1960s
Started by the poet Andre Breton, The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its personal, cultural, social, and political aspects. By the end of World War II he decided to embrace anarchism explicitly; in 1952 Breton wrote "It was in the black mirror of anarchism that surrealism first recognised itself." To this goal, at various times Surrealists aligned with communism and anarchism. Beside the use of dream analysis, (Freud) they emphasized that "one could combine inside the same frame, elements not normally found together to produce illogical and startling effects."
André Breton and images, 1924 (a collage)
The first artists who worked with Surrealist techniques and imagery were the German Max Ernst (1891–1976), the Frenchman André Masson (1896–1987), the Spaniard Joan Miró (1893–1983), and the American Man Ray (1890–1976).
The Potato (1999.363.50) of 1928 by Miró uses organic forms and twisted lines to create an imaginative world of fantastic figures.
His work defined a new form of illusionistic Surrealism practiced by the Spaniard Salvador Dalí (1904–1989), the Belgian Paul Delvaux (1897–1994), and the French-American Yves Tanguy (1900–1955). In The Eternally Obvious (2002.456.12a-f), Magritte's artistic display of a dismembered female nude is emotionally shocking.
Rene Magritte, The Son of Man, 1964
In 1927, the Belgian artist René Magritte (1898–1967) moved from Brussels to Paris and became a leading figure in the visual Surrealist movement.
Rene Magritte,
Dangerous Liasons, 1964
In The Satin Tuning Fork, Tanguy fills an illusionistic space with unidentifiable, yet sexually suggestive, objects rendered with great precision.
The Satin Tuning Fork, 1940
Yves Tanguy (American, born France, 1900–1955) Oil on canvas
Soft Watch at the Moment of Explosion, 1954
Salvadore Dali
Impressionism & Post Impression
Impressionism
• Rejected traditional art
• Broad
,
visible brush strokes
• Unmixed colors
• Emphasizing light
• Met with a lot of criticism
Post Impressionism
• Pushed past the limits
• Used Pointilisim
• Geometric Shapes
• U
sed u
nnatural colors
"Impressionism Sunrise" 1862
Claude Monet, (1840-1926)
"Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte" 1884-1886
Georges Seurat, 1859 – 1891
In the middle of the 19th century—the

prestigious
Académie des Beaux-Arts
dominated French art.
The Académie
was the "preserver" of traditional French painting standards of content and style.

Historical subjects, religious themes, and portraits were valued (landscape and still life were not), and the Académie preferred carefully finished images that looked realistic. Colour was somber and traces of brush strokes were suppressed, concealing the artist's personality, emotions, and working techniques.
Expressionist painting developed almost simultaneously in
different countries. Characterized by heightened,
symbolic colors
and exaggerated imagery, it was German Expressionism in particular
that tended to dwell on the
darker, sinister aspects of the human psyche
. In its
broadest sense, the term Expressionism it is used to describe any art that raises subjective feelings above objective observations. The paintings aim to reflect a state of mind rather than reality. The term is also suggestive of emotional angst.
"The Starry Night," 1889, Vincent van Gogh, 1853 -1890
The Post-Impressionists were dissatisfied with the triviality of subject matter and the loss of structure in Impressionist paintings.

Georges Seurat and his followers concerned themselves with Pointillism, the systematic use of tiny dots of color.

Vincent van Gogh, who transition from Post Impressionism to Expressionism, used color and vibrant swirling brush strokes to convey his feelings and his state of mind. Although they often exhibited together, Post-Impressionist artists were not in agreement concerning a cohesive movement.
The Bauhaus School
1919 to 1933
Piet Mondrian, 1872-1944
For the design student, the Bauhaus Movement is considered the most important design movement in the twentieth century. The first director and founder was Walter Gropius. The staff personnel recruited by Gropius included an almost un- believable number of great names in 20th century art and architecture. Among them were Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, and color theorist. Josef Albers.
Gelb Rot Blau (Yellow Red Blue) by Wassily Kandinsky, 1925
The Howling Dog by Paul Klee, 1928
They're Biting by Paul Klee, 1920
In 1923 a poster was made for the school that intrigued others to notice the unique typeset and design. Balanced layout, vibrant colors, harmony, geometric shapes strong bars, bold and universal type. Using upper case or lower case fonts, but not a combination of the two, the typeset was clear and concise.
Homage to the Square, 1965.
Josef Albers 1888-1976. He was a German-born American artist and educator whose work, both in Europe and in the United States, formed the basis of some of the most influential and far-reaching art education programs of the 20th century. With the closure of the Bauhaus under Nazi pressure in 1933, Albers immigrated to the United States.
BUT
before we jump into
20th Century art,
let's look at the set up for Modern Art:
[the last part of the 19th Century]
"The Académie" had an annual, juried art show, the Salon de Paris, and artists whose work was displayed in the show won prizes, garnered commissions, and enhanced their prestige.
The standards of the juries represented the values of the Académie.

A group of young realists, Monet, Renoir, Sisley, and Bazille, became friends and were joined by Pissarro, Cézanne, and Guillaumin. They painted together a lot. Each year, the Salon jury rejected their work in favour of works by artists faithful to the 'approved style.'

Impressionism can be considered partly a reaction by artists to the challenge presented by photography, which seemed to devalue the artist's skill in reproducing reality.
EXPRESSIONISM
1905- 1933
"The Scream" 1893,
Edvard Munch , inspired
20th-century Expressionists
"The Poet," 1911, Egon Schiele,
1890 – 1918
"Sunflowers," 1888 Vincent van Gogh 1853-1890
Paintings like "Sunflowers" and "Self Portrait" show the intensity of Van Gogh's
expressive
colors.
Note the bold colors, the very clear markings of the brish, and the reduction of shadows to geometric shapes.
Der Blaue Reiter was a movement lasting from 1911 to 1914, fundamental to
Expressionism
,

along with
Die Brücke
, founded in 1905.
Cover of
Der Blaue Reiter almanac, c.1912
The name of the movement is the title of a painting that Kandinsky painted in 1903. The group was disrupted by the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, when Franz Marc and August Macke were killed in combat.
"Der Blaue Reiter" 1903
Wassily Kandinsky
Marcel Duchamp arrived in the US prior to the creation of "Fountain" and become involved with Dada, in New York City. According to one version, the creation of Fountain began when he purchased a standard Bedfordshire model urinal from the J. L. Mott Iron Works, 118 Fifth Avenue. The artist brought the urinal to his studio reoriented it 90 degreesand wrote on it, "R. Mutt 1917." It was submitted for an exhibition and was rejected by the committee, even though the rules stated that all works would be accepted from artists who paid the fee. Duchamp served on that committee, and though no one knew the piece was his, he resigned in protest
According to Hans Richter, Dada was not art, it was "anti-art."Everything that art stood for, Dada ropposed. If art was
to appeal to sensibilities,
Dada was intended to
offend. After the Dada
movement, Richter devoted
his energies to the
development of a new
system of rhythmic
abstraction
"Houses at Night" 1912
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, 1884–1976
These buildings stagger apart from each other at odd angles over an eerily empty street, evoking the alienation of modern urban society.
"The Kiss" 1907-08
Gustav Klimt 1862–1918
An Austrian painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement. Klimt is noted for his paintings, murals, sketches, and other art objects. Klimt's primary subject was the female body; his works are marked by a frank eroticism.
DER BLAUE REITER
1911 - 1914
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