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Water Supply Systems
Transcript of Water Supply Systems
Systems I. Water Systems:
Purpose of the Water System 1. Consumption 2. Washing 3. Other Uses II. Elements of the Water System A. Water Supply a. Natural Sources
b. Water Utility
Cleaning and Purification
Transportation Water Softening Softening is not used when the utility supplies "soft" water already "Hard"Salts- calcium or magnesium "Cost" of using hard water- discoloration of linen, deposits in glasswares, need for stronger chemicals water flow over
ZEOLITE beads Sodium of zeolite is exahusted Replenish zeolite sodium by forcing a salt solution through the zeolite B. Water Distribution and Storage Water-Distribution
Systems 1. UPFEED Used when the public utility's water pressure is adequate to force water throughout a building of 6 floors or less in height. 2. DOWNFEED Water is forced to a storage tank located above the highest fixture level.
Water flows by gravity from the storage tank to the fixtures 3. COMBINATION
SYSTEMS upfeed system used for the lower building levels
downfeed system used for upper building levels Upfeed System Upfeed System with a pump Upfeed circulating system with a pump Downfeed System Downfeed circulating system Combination System C. PIPPING -pipes, piping fitting, valves
-insulated to prevent heat loss from hot water and prevent condensation on cold water piping Pipes: Main Service Pipes- supplies water to the building
Fixture Branch Pipes- supplies water to the single fixtures
Distribution (branch)Pipes- supplies water to the fixture branches
Riser Pipes: vertical distribution pipe Piping Materials Copper or plastic
Older pipes are made out of galvanized steel and brass
Copper pipe grades: K, L, M
Grade M used for water distribution pipes
Grades of Plastic Pipes: acrylonitrile-budadine-styrene (ABS) polybutylene (PB) polyethene (PE) polypropylene (PB) polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
-recommended for cold-water pipes chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) -used for hot-water pipes that do not exceed 180F Piping Fittings
Threaded: stronger, recommended for high rise building
Compression-type fitting: uses a soft metal ring that when squeezed into the pipe creates a seal Valves
-control the water flow
-used to minimize water flow
-used to isolate various elements of the system
-shuts off the supply of water to the said element or to the entire system
-backflow preventerrs are used to prevent water from flowing from one subsystem to another a. Gate Valve
used as on-off valves
operated on either completely opened or closed positions
Low resistance to water flow
Used as shut off valves on water mains
b. Angle and globe Values
used for variable water flow
has a high resistance to water flow when partially opened
when completely open they have moderate resistance
used in: lavatories, bathtubs, showers
c. Check Valve:
Allows water flow only one way
Acts as shut off valves for reversed water flow
require 90-180 degrees to fully open d. Needle Valve
key valves to control the flow of LPG gases
normally found in the kitchen E. Wastewater System Storm Sewer System: involved in the disposal of raiwater
Sanitary Sewer System: involved in the removal of waste production from the facility, designed to use gravity flow system
Piping Systems: uses cast iron or plastic piping, designed to withstand lower pressures than water systems
Grease-producing wastewater systems: will flow through a grease separator (grease trap) mounted either in the floor area or attached to a piece of equipment
Valves are rarely found in wastewater systems at the property lever
-Anything that slows or constricts flow in gravity flow system should be avoided
III. Water Supply - 70% of land areas in the Philippines are considered watershed areas (lakes, streams and springs).
- Annual average rainfall 2500mm
- Demand for water is 1/3 the supply but the problem lies with quality and distribution Water Suppliers 1. Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS)
97% of the supplies come from the Angat River while the remaining 3% is from groundwater
Water is distributed through3 tunnels and 5 aqueducts.
There are 4 treatment facilities, 2 in Balara and 2 in La Mesa Reservoir
Privatized and divided into the East and West Zones in 1995 through the National Water Crisis Act.
The privatization is 25 Year concession
6.Chlorination 2. Maynilad Water Services A Filipino firm owned by AYALAs in joint venture with International Water Ltd (IWL) formed by the US-based Bechtel Overseas Corp and UK firm Northeast Water
Responsible for The East Zone.
The east zone is home to about 5.6 million people from 23 cities and municipalities. It comprises the cities of Makati, Pasig, Mandaluyong, Marikina, most parts of Quezon City, some parts of Manila, and the municipalities of San Juan, Taguig, and Pateros. It also covers cities and municipalities in the Rizal province further east of Metro Manila.
The water is treated at the Balara Treatment facilities 3. Manila Water Company A Filipino firm BENPRES owned by the Lopezes in joint venture with French firm Lyonnaise Des Eaux
Responsible for 17 cities and municipalities in the West Zone of the metro. Includes: Caloocan, Las Piñas, Malabon, Manila, Muntinlupa, Navotas, Pasay, Parañaque, Valenzuela, parts of Quezon City, a part of Makati, Cavite City, and the municipalities of Rosario, Imus, Noveleta, Bacoor, and Kawit in Cavite. A total of 540.43 square kilometres.
The water is treated at the La Mesa Treatment facilities found in Novaliches, Quezon City. 4. Deep Well IV. Water Usage and Waste Water Usage General Uses in a Lodging Establishment
• For bathing and sanitary purposes
• As drinking water
• For cleaning activities
• Sanitizing and cooking in F&B establishments
• Recreation (e.g. swimming pools)
• Fire safety
• Coolant for equipment Hot Water Usage
•The supply of hot water is crucial for good lodging establishments
•Comes at extra cost for an establishment because of the heating costs
•Heating cost can range from 4-20 times the cost of water depending on the heating method and fuel used
•Large amounts of hot water are needed for services ranging from guest showers to laundry
•Two examples of common water heating systems: Mixing Valves and Booster Heaters
•Hot water used with equipment are generally softened to ensure proper equipment operation Water Wastage Used water frequently contains organic water wastes that are unwholesome
Pipes carry away used water to public underground sewers
Traps (S-shaped pipes) are used to prevent the foul smell of waste to flow back to the fixtures Vent pipes allow fresh air into the system; this prevents pressure imbalances and dilutes the noxious gases Water Consumption • The larger the property, the more water is consumed per room
• With the increase in activity-level and services, water consumption increases also
• On-site laundry, kitchens, irrigation and cooling towers increases water consumption
• According to a study, laundry water can account for 5%-29% of water consumption Water Cost and Conservation •Two types of water cost: Purchase (or Potable) and Disposal (Sewer)
•Purchase costs are generally about 45% of total water cost while disposal costs account for 55% of the total
•Because of high water costs, problems with availability and government policies, lodging establishments are encouraged to reduce their water usage
•Conservation not only involves lessening the amount of water used for operations and activities, but also involves maintaining equipment and facilities to make sure that no water goes to waste
V. Water Quality Water Quality is measured by several parameters such as bacteriological, physical, chemical, radiological,
and biological parameters. It is divided into different classes depending on quality and use. 1. Classification 2. Philippine Standards for drinking water 3. Methods of Water Treatment i. Filtration ii. Chemical Treatment
(includes disinfection) iii. Desalination iv. Flocculation v. Sedimentation vi. Water Softening vii. Aeration viii. Intake Filtering ix. Pre-chlorination VI. Water Heating is a thermodynamic process using an energy source to heat water above its initial temperature.
To save energy, insulation is done
Standard Temperatures: Domestic use/ Personal washing: 110F (43.3C)
Food production area sinks: 140F (60C)
Building heating or Kitchen steam kettles or steamers: 160F(71.1C)
Dishwashing Equipment: 180F (82.2C)
Pools and Spas: 80-100F (26.7-37.8C)
1. Storage Tank Insulation Increasing insulation thickness on the water storage tank and reducing water temperature will save energy.
2. Piping Insulation The higher the insulation thickness on pipes the lesser the heat loss 3. Hot-Water Heaters Common hot water heaters are: the unit heater-storage tank, a side-arm heater and a heat exchanger.
The least efficient system is the heater storage tank, primarily because insulation around the unit is inadequate and heat recovery rate is low.
Heat recovery rate:ability to heat water quickly
Side-arm heater can provide very large quantity of water in a short time
Heat exchanger is very efficient and is capable of prociging various water temperatures for the building.
Computing for the Water Bill Institution: EAMC Interviewee: Engr. Elmer Arcallana
Position: Head, Engineering Department Water System: System used: Gravity Flow System Structure: Water Supplier: Manila Water (NAWASA) System Tank (ground) Pumped to elevated water tank Distributed to subsystems Pipe Lines: Old Pipes: made of galvanized iron
New Pipes: made of PPR Wastewater System: Uses Gravity Flow System
Sanitary: uses grease separators / grease traps Water Supply:
Regular water supply
System tank: regulated by valves Water Usage Monthly Cost= P1,000,000+
Dietary Section: water consumption is very minimal since daily operations are until 5pm only Water Wastage very minimal Water Quality Water being distributed to all subsystems are potable (including dietary section)
comes from one main source
Monitored every month by
National Reference Laboratory (DOH)
Water Heating Before: has cooling and heating systems
Now: no water cooling and heating systems no funds
D. Water Pumps used to overcome gravity and friction
how it works: lowers air pressure (creating a partial vacuum) above or in front of the water Types of Pumps 1. Jet pump: used to pump water out of the well
2. Centrifugal pump: has a whirling scoop like blade called IMPELLERS that throw water forward. 80% efficiency
-Has 2 types:
Turbine Pump: centrifugal series pumps located in the well positioned on the ground
Submersible Pump: positioned in the well with the multistage impellers
3. Reciprocating pump: provides large lift potential, used in deep wells. 90% efficiency. Works li.Gearke an automobile engine: a piston driving up and down
4. Rotary pump: used for semi-solids or gases, low efficiency level. Used in the hospitality industry with refrigerator systems
5. Gear pump:has a series of rotating gears, accurate amount of fluids and semi-solids. 65% efficiency Must be at least 25 ft away from the septic tank Mixing Valve: installed to control hot water temperature. Connected to both the hot and cold line Water Heating Options 1. Directly fired water heater
2. Indirectly fired water heater
3. Heat pump water heaters (HPWH) END Thank you for listening by Apta Chaitanya Research Scholar,DES,GIS,