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The Integumentary System

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Cheryl Stover

on 24 January 2012

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Transcript of The Integumentary System

Skin and Body Membranes Skin and Body Membranes Integumentary System What is Skin Anatomy of Skin General Anatomy
A large organ composed of all 4 tissue types
2 Major layers of skin
– Epidermis is epithelial tissue only
– Dermis is layer of connective tissue, nerve & muscle
Subcutaneous Tissue (Hypodermis or subQ) is layer of adipose & loose CT
Epidermis Dermis Subcutaneous Layer
(Hypodermis) Flat dead cells filled with keratin
Continuously shed
Barrier to light, heat, water, chemicals & bacteria

Stratum Corneum Stratum Lucidum Seen in thick skin on palms & soles of feet Stratum Granulosum organelles deteriorating

Stratum Spinosum During slide preparation, cells shrink and look spiny
Melanin (pigment protein) taken in by phagocytosis from nearby melanocytes
Deepest single layer of cells
Called stratum germinativum
Combo of merkel cells, melanocytes, keratinocytes & stem cells that divide repeatedly
Cells attached to each other & to basement membrane
Stratum Basale Keratinocyte Keratinocyte Keratinocyte Keratinocyte Merkel
Cell Melanin Langerhans Cell (immune) Keratin (not Pictured) Melanocyte Melanocyte Dermis Dermis Nerve
Ending Connective tissue layer macrophages & fat cells
Contains hair follicles, glands, nerves & blood vessels
Major regions of dermis: papillary region& reticular region
anchors epidermis to dermis
contains capillaries that feed epidermis
contains Meissner’s Corpuscles (touch) & free nerve endings (pain & temp)
Papillae Insulator: conserving body heat
Shock absorber: protecting internal organs from injury
Stores fat as an energy reserve
Corpuscle Arrector Pili smooth muscle
causes goose bumps
Gland Produces Sebum
cholesterol, proteins, fats & salts
keeps hair and skin soft & pliable
inhibits growth of bacteria & fungi (ringworm)
Gland Sudoriferous glands
Hair Shaft Eccrine (sweat) glands
–most areas of skin
–secretory portion in dermis with duct to surface
–regulate body temperature with perspiration
Apocrine (sweat) glands
–armpit and pubic region
–secretory portion in dermis with duct that opens onto hair follicle
–secretions more viscous (milky)
Hair Root Root Hair Plexus
Senses hair movment Stratified squamous epithelium
No blood vessels (avascular)
4 types of cells
5 distinct strata (layers) of cells

Melanin produced in epidermis by melanocytes
– same # of melanocytes in everyone, but differing amounts of pigment produced
– results vary from yellow to tan to black color
– UV in sunlight increases melanin production
Carotene in dermis
– yellow-orange pigment
– red, oxygen-carrying pigment in blood cells
– if other pigments are not present, epidermis is translucent so pinkness occurs
Regulation of body temperature
Protection as physical barrier
Sensory receptors
Excretion and absorption
Synthesis of vitamin
Destruction of proteins of the skin = chemicals, electrical, heat
Problems that result
– shock due to water, plasma and plasma protein loss
– circulatory & kidney problems from loss of plasma
– bacterial infection

3 common forms of skin cancer
– Basal Cell Carcinoma (rarely metastasize)
– Squamous Cell Carcinoma (may metastasize)
– Malignant Melanomas (metastasize rapidly)
-arise from melanocytes ----life threatening!!!

General Functions of the Skin Skin Cancer
First-degree Burn = only epidermis (sunburn)
Second-degree Burn
– destroys entire epidermis & part of dermis
– fluid-filled blisters separate epidermis & dermis
– epidermal derivatives are not damaged
– heals without grafting in 3 to 4 weeks & may scar
Third-degree or full-thickness
– destroy epidermis, dermis & epidermal derivatives
– damaged area is numb due to loss of sensory nerves Burns Types of Burns Skin Color Pigments Serous membranes line and enclose several body cavities, known as serous cavities, where they secrete a lubricating fluid which reduces friction from muscle movement Serous membranes Each serous membrane is composed of a secretory epithelial layer and a connective tissue layer underneath. – parietal layer lines walls of cavities (outside)
– visceral layer covers viscera (internal organs) within the cavities Visceral Pleura: clings to surface of lungs
Parietal Pleura: lines chest wall
Visceral Pericardium: covers heart
Parietal Pericardium: lines pericardial sac
Visceral Peritoneum -serous membrane that covers the abdominal viscera (organs)
Parietal Peritoneum - serous membrane that lines the abdominal wall Visceral Layer Parietal Layer Serous Fluid Mucous membranes Line cavites that open to the outside
Made of epithelial and CT
Synovial membranes Cutaneous
membranes Synovial Membrane Synovial fluid Synovial fluid Found in joints
Connective tissue only
Produces Synovial fluid Skin
only dry membrane
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