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Earth Science Unit 1 - Science Methods & Intro to Earth Science

9th grade Earth systems, Utah public education
by

Cassie Grether

on 28 October 2015

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Transcript of Earth Science Unit 1 - Science Methods & Intro to Earth Science

INTRO TO EARTH SCIENCE
Science Methods &
What is Science?
What is it good for?
Earth Science
aka Awesome Science
Inference and the Scientific Method
Charts & Graphs
Science is the study of the natural world.
Science uses observation and inquiry to solve puzzles and discover natural laws.
Scientists believe that humans have the capacity to discover and understand these natural laws.
Science has its limitations.
Science uses facts and evidence obtained through observation and experimentation.
Facts are what can be seen or observed without interpretation. They can be proven and are unbiased.
Q: What are the facts about this flower?
Q: What are opinions about this flower?
Observation is the process of obtaining information by using the senses.
Observation isn't easy.
What can science not do?
What specific things can you think of that science has been used to discover?
Observations lead to questions. Questions can lead to an
explanation
on why or how something occurs.

Can you tell me what this explanation is called?
HYPOTHESIS!
A hypothesis is an explanation that is based on observations and that can be tested.
In this class you will be expected to perform experiments.
Understanding:
observation
facts
data
hypothesis
will all be very important.
You will be graded on your ability to:
come up with a hypothesis
ways to test your hypothesis
Let's work on a simple example.

There is a yellowed spot in the middle of a lawn.
You take your initial observations:
The rest of the lawn is green
there is a sprinkler near the yellowed area
When the sprinkler is run you can tell the grass gets wet.
Formulate Some Questions
Now it is time to formulate a question.

Why is this happening?
Give some possible explanations or hypotheses based on our evidence.
Testable Hypotheses
Which of these explanations can we test?
In Your Groups
Look at the hand-out labeled Forming Hypotheses.
Task: work together and come up with at least one hypothesis for each problem.
Then work together to come up with at least three ways to test each problem.
Earth science is the study of the Earth and the space beyond it.
Earth science when dealing with the planet is categorized into "spheres".
1. biosphere
2. geosphere
3. atmosphere
4. hydrosphere
The biosphere (bio meaning life) includes the part of Earth where life exists; it includes all living organisms on Earth. Plants, animals, fungus, bacteria and even humans are part of the biosphere.

The geosphere (geo meaning earth) consists of the rocky part of the Earth including molten rock extending from the core to the surface of the crust.

The atmosphere (atmos meaning air or gas) is the gases that surround our planet including the air that we breath.

The hydrosphere (hydro meaning water) is the portion of the Earth that is water. This includes all oceans, lakes, rivers, ground water (water in the ground), and the cryosphere (cryo meaning ice or cold).


Earth science covers many branches of science.
Geology (geo meaning earth) - is the study of the solid Earth including origin, history, processes, and the structure of the solid Earth.
Geology
Oceanography is the study of the oceans and seas.
Oceanography
ex scientists: petrologists, geologist, paleontologist
ex scientists: oceanographer, biological oceanographer
Meteorology (meteor- meaning lofty, high; in air) is the study of the atmosphere.

Meteorology
ex scientists: meteorologist
Astronomy
Astronomy (astro meaning stars) is the study of the universe beyond Earth.


ex scientists: astrophysicist, astrobiologist, astronomer
Environmental Science
Environmental science studies the affect humans have on the planet and how we can reduce our impact on the planet.
ex. scientists: environmental scientist
Facts are what can be seen or observed without interpretation. They can be proven and are unbiased.
Review Time
Remember the flower? What were some of the facts that we came up with and what were the opinions?
Fact vs. Opinion
Task:
Work with your desk mates to evaluate this written argument.
What do you see?
Fact or Opinion
Worksheet
solo work
Hypothesis
A hypothesis is an explanation that is based on observations and that can be tested.
Put that in your own words
When forming a hypothesis you should:
take in all available observations and facts
create an explanation that best fits the current information
give an explanation for something
make a prediction of what will happen under certain circumstances
AND be TESTABLE

hypotheses
should:
Give me an example of a hypothesis.
Inference
inference is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.
What does that mean???
Inference is what can be determined or concluded from the facts. It is "the science you can't see"
Putting Things
TOGETHER
Inferences need Observations
What is an observation again?
You use inference all of the time in your daily life.
You smell cookies baking. What can you infer?
You hear birds chirping. What can you infer?
You feel the heat of a car door handle. What can you infer?
Inference & YOU
From this photograph what can we directly observe?
What can we infer?
What can we observe?
What can we infer?
What can you observe? What can you infer?
A boy comes inside
wearing a coat. The boy is holding an umbrella.
His shoes are wet.
Scientists must make inferences based on evidence or observations and facts to come to a conclusion.
Inference and Scientists
paleontologist
& poop
geomorphologist & twisted rock
did he see it get twisted?
did the scientist observe the dinosaur eating?
Group Work With Inference
Your group will need:
a piece of white paper
a magnifying glass
a scratch paper with two columns: observations, inferences
pen or pencil
Make all of the observations you can. Then as a class we we discuss.
A photograph can express a thousand words.
A graph can express a few words about a thousand points of data.
A graph is a way to visually see or represent your data.
DATA
a graph helps make sense of numbers and lets us see relationships and correlations
When making a graph or chart, include:
quantitative data
descriptive title
titles for x and y axes
include units of measurements
quantitative: relating to, measuring, or measured by the quantity of something. (a number value)
Time to make chart.
Sunrise-Sunset and Temperature Data
Just be because a graph shows correlation, it doesn't mean causation.
correlation: a mutual relationship or connection between two or more things.
causation: the relationship between cause and effect; causality
I have a theory!
Well...
probably not.
What you probably have is an idea.

A theory is NOT an idea or thought that someone just came up with.

You might have a hypothesis, though.
When a hypothesis becomes wildly accepted by the scientific community it is supported my multiple experiments, facts, observations and many other hypothesis.
When a hypothesis is back up by so much evidence that it fits all current data, it can become a theory.
Theory is NOT an idea. Theory is scientific fact that is back up and supported by evidence.
gravity
evolution
superposition
Scientific law on the other hand is a bit different.
observations
evidence
hypothesis
theory
BUT theory
law
Scientific law: is a statement that describes how something will behave or occur under a very specific set of conditions.
For example
The first law of thermodynamics, also known as Law of Conservation of Energy, states that energy can not be created or destroyed; it can only be redistributed or changed from one form to another.
This law does not make a prediction of what might happen in the future, or give an indication of what you might find. It just states a fact of the Universe.
The one thing that stays the same is that things change.
Science is revisable
based on facts
theories and hypothesis
new information comes in
science has to change
Spontaneous Generation
where mice come from
The World is Flat
The World Is a Sphere
Group Work
Geocentric vs. Heliocentric
1543 Nicholas Copernicus
Polish Roman Catholic
mathematician
astronomer
Galileo Galilei
cited Jean-Bernard-Leo Foucault with his evidence of a pendulum.
Coriolis effect
and mounds of mathematical formulas and
many many observations of the night skies.
His fate: arrested on heresy by the Inquisition.
Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and Roman Catholic
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