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The Homework Debate
Transcript of The Homework Debate
Positive Impact of Homework
Suggestions for Administrators
The Homework Debate
Research to Support Positive Effects of HW
Duke University Study (Fernandes, 2011)
Personal Student Impact
Research to Support
Negative Effects of HW
Practice HW-go over material already presented to reinforce learning and facilitate mastery of skills (Cooper,2009)
Preparation HW-introduce material in future lessons
Extension HW- transfer previously learned material to new skills
EX-Applying math skills to create a home budget (Cooper,2009)
Integration HW-apply separately learned skills to create a product (Cooper,2009)
EX-Read a book and write a book report
Communication with home and community
EX-take responsibility, gain self confidence (Macgregor,2009)
immediate academic effects
long-term academic effects
Immediate Academic Effects
Benefits of HW
better retention and understanding of material
better critical thinking-improve higher level thinking skills (Macgregor, 2009)
a desire to learn during leisure (Macgregor,2009)
improvement of study skills and study habits
develop a positive attidute towards school (Mcgregor,2009)
Teach that learning can take place anywhere-real world applications (Cooper,2009)
Non Academic Effects
teach good character traits
responsibility, self discipline, independence
Get them involved in classroom
"Enhancing their appreciation and understanding of what goes on in the classroom and allowing them to express positive attitudes toward the value of school success" (Cooper,2009).
Positive involvement in child's life
reviewed more than 60 studies between 1987-2003
homework does have positive effects
positive link with grades 7-12
too much can be counterproductive
1979 US Study
"The assignment of homework by teachers and completion by students were positively associated with student academic performance and school behavior" (Macgregor, 2009).
Homework -Butler-1987 (Macgregor, 2009)
teaches independent skills
teaches accountability and personal responsibility
teaches that schools have high expectations
teachers can monitor progress and identify learning problems
help to move quickly through curriculum
Homework Research and Policy: A Review of Literature- Cooper-1994
long term academic benefits
enjoyment of learning in leisure time
improved attitude toward school
greater "self direction, self discipline, time organization, inquisitiveness..." (Macgregor, 2009)
The Battle Over Homework-Cooper-2007
"In experimental studies, the average student doing homework had a higher unit test score than 73% of students not doing homework" (Macgregor,2009).
may lead to negative character traits (Cooper,2009)
EX-more likely to cheat to get work done
exhaustion (Kohn, 2007)
less time for leisure and community activities that may teach important life skills (Cooper,2009)
students from "dis-advantaged homes may have more difficulty completing assignments than their middle-class counterparts" (Cooper,2009).
boredom with school work (Cooper,2009)
loss of interest in learning (Kohn, 2007)
parents may not like what HW does to relationship with child (Cooper,2009)
confusion when "reteaching" material
Book-The Homework Myth:Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing-2006
Directly argues against Harris Cooper and his reasons promoting HW (Marzano & Pickering, 2007)
Tours the country promoting the need for less or no homework
The End of Homework: How Homework Disrupts Families, Overburdens Children, and Limits Learning -2000-Kralovec and Buell
argued that homework "overvalues work to the detriment of personal and familial well-being"(Marzano & Pickering, 2007)
focused on the economically disadvantaged students who end up being punished because of their environments (Marzano & Pickering, 2007)
in favor of a longer school day over assigning HW
The Case Against Homework: How Homework Is Hurting Our Children and What We Can Do About It-2006-Bennett & Kalish
"Provided evidence that too much homework harms students' health and family time, and they asserted that teachers are not well trained in how to assign homework" (Marzano & Pickering, 2007)
Avoid HW over breaks and holidays
Reduce the amount of HW given and train teachers
Be educated-know the research!
Have a school-wide policy
Involve teachers, parents, and students to help create policy
"Many adults simply assume that homework is useful for promoting learning without even inquiring into the experience of the learners themselves" (Kohn, 2007)
Do not allow "standardized homework policies" (Kohn, 2007)
certain amounts each night
same assignments each week
Communicate with parents
How is homework impacting home life?
Check in with teachers
Are they following school wide policies?
Suggestions for Teachers
Work together to make HW a positive experience for children!
Suggestions for Parents
By, Alicia Schenk
Use HW effectively
(Marzano & Pickering, 2007)
Do not assign inappropriate HW
Ask- Is HW necessary to accomplish learning goal?
Make it meaningful!
Use learning styles-give options
Real world applications
"Assign what you design" (Kohn,2007)
Remember the age and developmental level of student (Cooper,2009)
Quality over quantity!
Communicate with children and teachers!
Understand school and teacher policies
Do not act as an expert-confusion may occur (Marzano & Pickering, 2007)
Do not engage in HW battles
What Should Schools Do?
Cooper, H. (2009, December 23). Homework. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/homework1/
Fernandes, L. (2011, March 21). Homework has positive effect on student achievement: Duke study. Retrieved from http://tvoparents.tvo.org/article/homework-has-positive-effect-student-achievement-duke-study
Kohn, A. (2007). Rethinking homework. Retrieved from http://www.alfiekohn.org/teaching/rethinkinghomework.htm
Macgregor, I. (2009). Homework: What are the upsides and downsides?. Retrieved from http://www.familyschool.org.au/pdf/homework090710.pdf
Marzano, R., & Pickering, D. (2007). Special topic: The case for and against homework. ASCD, 64(6), Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/mar07/vol64/num06/The-Case-For-and-Against-Homework.aspx