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Human Heredity

Miller/Levine: Biology: Chapter 14

Gloria Gammel

on 18 April 2012

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Transcript of Human Heredity

HUMAN HEREDITY Day 1: Bellwork
What are some of the downfalls to trying to study human genetics?
You have a vocab quiz today! HUMAN CHROMOSOMES 1. KARYOTYPE - shows the complete set of chromosomes grouped together in pairs, arranged in order of decreasing size 2. SEX CHROMOSOMES - 2 chromosomes which determine an individual's sex a. Females - XX; Males - XY 3. AUTOSOMES - 44 chrommosomes which determine everything unrelated to sex 4. Transmission of Human Traits a. Simple dominant and recessive - Red hair - usually has two recessive alleles one from each parent b. Codominance and Multiple Alleles - Blood typing (copy Blood Group table from Figure 14-5 on page 394) c. Sex-Linked Inheritance - SEX-LINKED GENE - a gene located on a sex chromosome - Genes located on the X chromo. are found in both sexes a. Females - XX; Males - XY - Females w/ 2 X chromo. can carry the allele but not have the disease - Males with only 1 X chromo. either have the disease or don't - Colorbindness; male pattern baldness; hemophilia d. X-Chromosome Inactivation - In females the "extra" X chromosome is turned off - Calico cats Page 397 (1, 2) Day 2: Bellwork
What is a sex-linked trait?
How is their expression in males and females different?
What is an example of a sex-linked trait? Human Genetic Disorders 1. Changes in a gene's DNA sequence can change proteins by altering their amino acid sequences, which may directly affect one's phenotype. 2. Single Gene Disorders a. Sickle Cell Disease - a change in the shape of red blood cells results in poor oxygen distribution, blood flow and an increase in blood clotting b. Cystic Fibrosis - European ancestry; prevents chloride ions from exiting cells; is recessive; results in a build up of mucus which can essentially kill you by drowning c. Huntington's Disease - dominant; doesn't appear until middle age; mental deterioration; uncontrolled movements 3. Genetic Advantages a. Malaria - Those with sickle cell have a higher likelihood of surviving a malarial outbreak then someone without it b. Typhoid - Cystic Fibrosis helps prevent people from dying from typhoid 4. Chromosomal Disorders a. NONDISJUNCTION - the most common error in meiosis when homologous chromosomes fail to come apart b. Gametes with an extra chromosome result in an individual born with an extra chromosome c. The most common result is Down Syndrome d. Turner's Syndrome
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