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Kimberly Hills

on 24 March 2014

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Transcript of Biomes


Mountains many different types of terrain. At the bottom, it begins as a desert. Then, as the elevation gets higher and higher, its changes to a deciduous forest, the to grasslands, to a steppe and at the very top it is a taiga.
In the summer, the average temperature ranges from 50-60 degrees. In the winter, it usually goes below freezing.
Mountains usually get 12 inches of rain annually. it usually comes in the form of snow.
The animals that live in mountains are warm blooded and there are many insects. The animals are very unique. They have adapted to bare with the freezing cold. Mammals hibernate in the winter and they have an extra layer of fat to insulate their bodies. Because of high elevation, there is very little oxygen in the air. Animals that live in mountainous regions also have larger lungs so that they can breath in more oxygen at one time. Birds migrate to warmer places so that they don't have to deal with the extreme cold.

Savanna Biome
The savanna biome is mostly grass, but there are a few trees. The largest savanna in the world is located in Africa. During the wet season, the average temperature is 63 degrees fehrenheit. The savanna usually receives about 59 inches of rain a year. Since this biome has a long dry season, the animals and plants have adapted to the climate. During the dry season, lightning often strikes and starts fires. The animals have adapted to run quickly so that they can avoid the fires.There are many animals, such as: zebras, elephants, rhinos, gazelles, hyenas, cheetahs, lions, mousebirds, and weavers. Plants and animals depend on each other for their food supply.
In the taiga biome, every year it rains an average of 12-33 inches. In the summer it is warm and dry. The average temperature in the summer is 30-70 degrees. In the winter, there tends to be a lot of snow and the temperature goes well below freezing. It gets to -65-20 degrees. With the extreme cold that occurs, the animals and plants have learned to adapt. There are not many species of plants because only a few plants survive the winter. The trees have waxy needles and they grow very close together to protect themselves from the winter weather. In this area, wildfires can be quite common, so trees have thick bark so that they don't burn as easily. Animals hibernate in the winter and birds migrate to warmer places.
Taiga Biome
Arctic Tundra
The arctic tundra is located in the northern hemisphere, near the north pole. Its growing season lasts 50-60 days. Its average winter temperature is -30 degrees Celsius (-22 degrees Farenhieght), and its average summer temperature is 3-12 degrees Celsius (37-54 degrees Farenhieght). Rainfall may vary in different regions of this biome. Yearly precipitation, including melting snow, is 15-20 cm (6-8 inches). There are 1,700 different species of plants here. These plants have adapted to sweeping winds and disturbances of the soil. They are also short and they group together to resist cold temperatures. In the winter, they are protected by the snow. The animals in this biome have adapted to handle long, cold winters and to breed and raise young quickly in the summer. Many of these animals have additional insulation from fat and they hibernate or migrate in the winter.
Mountain Biomes
Tundra Biome
The Tundra biome has an extremely cold climate all year. There is a low biotic diversity, a limitation of drainage, simple vegetation structure, and a short season of growth and reproduction. in this biome, energy and nutrients are found in the form of dead organic material. There are two types of tundra, arctic tundra and alpine tundra.
Alpine Tundra
Alpine tundra is located on mountains throughout the world at high altitiude where trees can not grow. The growing season is approximately 180 days. The nighttime temperature is usually below freezing. The plants are very similar to those of the arctic ones including tussock grasses, dwarf trees, small-leaved shrubs, and heaths. The animals living in the alpine tundra are well adapted and they include: pikas, marmots, mountain goats, sheep, elk, grouselike birds, springtails, beetles, grasshoppers, and butterflies.
Oceans are the largest of all the ecosystems. Some people say that oceans have the richest diversity of species. The animals have adapted to camouflage with the plants and the coral. The ocean has 5 zones. The first zone is the intertidal zone where the ocean meets the land. The second zone is the pelagic zone, this is the open ocean. The next zone is the benthic zone, the zone that is below the pelagic zone but it does not include the deepest parts of the ocean. The final zone is the abyssal zone. The water in the abyssal zone is 37.4 degrees ferenheit, the level of pressure is very high, and it has a lot of dissolved oxygen. It doesn't have many nutrients. The temperature in the ocean varies- the deeper you go, the warmer it will get. The average annual rainfall is about 40 inches.
Ocean Biome
There are four types of deserts: cold deserts, hot and dry deserts, semi-arid deserts, and coastal deserts. The annual precipitation in a cold desert is 15-26 cm, in hot and dry deserts the annual precipitation is usually about 1.5 cm, in a semi-arid desert the annual precipitation is 2-4 cm, and in coastal deserts the annual precipitation is 8-13 cm. The temperatures in a cold desert range from -2 degrees Celsius to 4 degrees Celsius. In a hot and dry desert, temperatures range from 20 degrees Celsius to 25 degrees Celsius. The temperatures in a semi-arid desert range from 21 degrees Celsius and 27 degrees Celsius and in a coastal desert -4 degrees Celsius to 35 degrees Celsius. There isn't much vegetation in the hot and dry deserts. In cold deserts, plants are scattered and in areas with little shade, about 10% of the ground is covered in vegetation. Animals in hot and dry deserts include: small nocturnal carnivores, small insects, reptiles, arachnids and birds. In cold deserts, there are antelope, ground squirrels, jack rabbits, kangaroo rats, and simillar animals.
Coral Reef biomes
Coral reefs are most commonly found near barrier islands along continents. Corals are the main organisms in the coral reef biome. Since reef waters tend to have a low level of nutrients, corals attain their nutrients through algae. In coral reefs, there are also many species of microorganisms, fish, sea urchins, sea stars, octopi, and invertebrates. The average temperature in coral reefs is 70-85 degrees farenheit. The rainfall throughout the year is between 42.4 -46.8 inches.
Estuary Biome
An estuary is the area where freshwater meets salt water. Estuaries never have the same amount of salt concentration, therefore, each estuary has a different type of ecosystem. Estuaries have a variety of worms, crabs, and oysters. the average temperature year round is 51 degrees ferenheit. The amount of rainfall during the year varies between each estuary. Some estuaries get more than 5 inches during its dry season, and some estuaries don't even get 5 inches during their wet season. The types of plants that live in estuaries also vary because some estuaries are saltier than others. Most estuaries contain seagrass, spike grass, smooth cordgrass, sea lavender, and aquatic plants.
Temperate Grassland Biome
Polar Ice Biome
Temperate grasslands are large areas of land that are dry and gra.The annual precipitation is 20 to 35 inches. The temperature ranges from -40 to over 100 degrees Fahrenheit! This biome is located in: North America, Europe, and Africa. The plants in this biome include: cottonwoods, oaks, willows, shrubs, a few hundred species of flowers, purple needlegrass, blue grama, buffalo grass, and galleta. Animals include: gazelles, zebras, rhinoceroses, wild horses, lions, wolves, prairie dogs, deer, mice, coyotes, foxes, skunks, badgers, blackbirds, grouses, meadowlarks, quails, sparrows, hawks, owls, snakes, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, and spiders.
Tropical Rainforest Biome
The tropical rainforest is earth’s most complex biome. It covers about 7% of the earth’s surface, mainly in Brazil, South America. Rainfall can reach up to 400 inches a year, and the average temperature is 70 to 85⁰ F. The tropical rainforest has about half of the world’s species, over 2,500 different ones, but insects make up the majority of them and most of the animals there live in trees. The tropical rainforest has 5layers; the A layer, the B layer, the C layer, the shrub/sapling layer, and the ground layer.

The A layer consists of widely spaced trees 100 to 120 feet tall with umbrella-shaped canopies that extend above the general canopy of the forest.

The B layer is a closed canopy of 80 foot trees. There is a lot of light at the top of this layer, but not much at the bottom.

The C layer is a closed canopy of 60foot trees. There is little air movement here and humidity is always high.
The shrub/sapling layer gets less than 3% of the light from the top of the forest.

The ground layer has spare plant growth. Less than 1% of the light from the top of the forest reaches here. Moisture is also reduced because of the layers above this one.

Common characteristics of the tropical trees in the tropical rainforest are buttresses, large leaves, drip tips, exceptionally thin bark, and cauliflory.

The polar ice biome, also known as the north polar biome, is characterized by very low temperatures throughout the year, with permanent presence of snow and ice. It has almost no vegetation and very low animal/ predator diversity. It actually has the lowest biodiversity of any terrestrial biome.
Aquatic Biomes
Aquatic biomes make up the largest part of the biosphere, seventy-five percent. They have numerous species of plants and animals. The air temperatures, though mainly cool, can vary widely. They tend to be more humid, and are categorized into two basic regions: saltwater and freshwater
Freshwater Biomes
Freshwater biomes have low salt concentration, usually less than one percent. The plants and animals in the freshwater biome have adapted to the low salt content, so they cannot live on saltwater regions. In ponds and lakes, summer temperatures range from 4 degrees Celsius near the bottom to 22 degrees Celsius at the top. During the winter, the temperature ranges from 4 degrees Celsius at the bottom to 0 degrees (ice) at the top. There are three regions in this biome, ponds and lakes, streams and rivers, and wetlands.
Ponds And Lakes
Ponds and lakes range in size and differ in how long they last. Many ponds are seasonal, lasting just a couple of months, while lakes may exist for hundreds of years or more. They both have limited species diversity because of isolation from other water sources. There are different “zones” that are usually determined by depth and distance from the shoreline
The top zone located near the shore of a lake is called the litteral zone. It is the warmest zone since it is shallow and can absorb more of the sun’s heat. It has a fairly diverse community, which can include several species of algae, rooted and floating aquatic plants, grazing snails,clams, insects, crustaceans, fish, and amphibians. But, for the insects, only the egg and larvae stage take place in this zone.
Litteral Zone
Desert Biome
Limnetic Zone
The second zone, near the surface, is called the limnetic zone. It is well lighted, like the littoral zone, and dominated by plankton, such as phytoplankton and zooplankton. A variety of fish also occupy this zone.
Profundal Zone
The third and deepest zone is the profundal zone. It is much colder and denser than the other zones. Little light gets to this zone. The fauna are heterotrophs, meaning they eat dead organisms and use oxygen for cellular respiration.
Streams and rivers are bodies of flowing water moving in one direction that can be found anywhere. They usually start at headwaters (which are their sources), which could be springs, snowmelt, or even lakes. Streams and rivers travel from their source to their mouth (another water channel or the ocean). The water may change on the journey from the source to the mouth. It is cooler, cleaner, and has I higher oxygen level at the source than at the mouth. Freshwater fish and heterotrophs can also be found at the source. Toward the middle of the stream/river, the width and species diversity increase. Numerous aquatic green plants and algae can be found. Toward the mouth of the river/ stream, the water becomes murky from all of the sediment it has picked up, decreasing the amount of light that can go through it. Because of this, there is less diversity of flora. Because of low oxygen levels, fish that require less oxygen, such as catfish and carp, can be found.
Streams And Rivers
Wetlands are areas of sanding water that support aquatic plants. Marshes, swamps, and bogs are all considered wetlands. The plants that have adapted to these moist and humid conditions are called hydrophytes. Examples of these are; pond lilies, cattails, sedges, tamarack, and black spruce. Animals that have adapted to these conditions are called furbearers. Examples of these are: amphibians, reptiles, ducks, and waders. Wetlands sometimes aren’t considered freshwater, because some of them have high salt concentration.
Thank You For Watching!
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