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Part 2 How the real world at last became a myth
Transcript of Part 2 How the real world at last became a myth
at last Became a Myth History of an Error From Freidrich Nietzsche's Twilight of the Idols,
or How to Philosophize with a Hammer 1. The real world, attainable to the wise, the pious, the virtuous man – he dwells in it, he is it. (oldest form of the idea, relatively sensible, simple, convincing. Transcription of the proposition ‘I, Plato, am the truth.’) 2. The real world, unattainable for the moment, but promised to the wise, the pious, the virtuous man (‘to the sinner who repents’). (Progress of the idea: it grows more refined, more enticing, more incomprehensible – it becomes a woman, it becomes Christian . . .) 3. The real world, unattainable, undemonstrable, cannot be promised, but even when merely thought of a consolation, a duty, an imperative. 4. The real world – unattainable? Unattained, at any rate. And if unattained also unknown. Consequently also no consolation, no redemption, no duty: how could we have a duty towards something unknown? (The grey dawn First yawnings of reason. Cockcrow of positivism.) 5. The ‘real world’ – an idea no longer of any use, not even a duty any longer – an idea grown useless, superfluous, consequently a refuted idea: let us abolish it! 6. We have abolished the real world: what is left? the apparent world perhaps? . . . But no! with the real world we have also abolished the apparent world! as-if-as-if-as-if GOD FREEDOM IMMORTALITY The Forms Truth Beauty The Good Piety Justice Virtue has set me free! The Apparent World The Real World S I N Greed Lust Sloth Anger Gluttony Envy Pride Love Peace Kindness Temperance Fortitude Justice Courage Grace Mercy The Real World The City of God REPENT!
And you may enter! The Apparent World Noumenal Phenomenal The Real World (Fundamentally the same old sun, but shining through mist and skepticism; the idea grows sublime, pale, northerly, Königsbergian.) The starry skys above, and the moral law within. the light o f reason The mind imposes laws on nature by the way it functions. "Mind is the law-giver to nature." We are no longer dealing with an external world to which the mind responds but a world constructed by the mind.
The Real World? God? Duty? Salvation? CAVE
CAVE The Apparent World Augustine's City of Man The Apparent World The Empirical World Reason illuminates
the Cave (Broad daylight; breakfast; return of cheerfulness and bons sens; Plato blushes for shame; all free spirits run riot.) Social
moment of the shortest shadow;
end of the longest error;
zenith of mankind;
INCIPIT ZARATHUSTRA) “To redeem those who lived in the past and to recreate all ‘it was’ into a ‘thus I willed it’ – that alone should I call redemption…All 'it was’ is a fragment, a riddle, a dreadful accident – until the creative will says to it ‘But thus I will it; thus shall I will it.’”
- Zarathustra “…for the good and the bad are only two opposed species of the same class, namely morals, just as sickness and health are two different aspects of the same order of facts, life, while the sacred and the profane have always and everywhere been conceived by the human mind as two distinct classes, as two worlds between which there is nothing in common.” Émile Durkheim, “The Elementary Forms of Religious Life” “When I fulfill my obligations as brother, husband, or citizen, when I execute my contracts, I perform duties which are defined, externally to myself and my acts, in law and in custom. Even if they conform to my own sentiments and I feel their reality subjectively, such reality is still objective, for I did not create them; I merely inherited them through my education.”
Émile Durkheim, “The Rules of Sociological Method”
“Even when I free myself from these rules and violate them successfully, I am always compelled to struggle with the. When finally overcome, they make their constraining power sufficiently felt by the resistance they offer. The enterprises of all innovators, including successful ones, come up against resistance of this kind.”
Émile Durkheim, “The Rules of Sociological Method” “The two worlds are not only conceived of as separate, but as even hostile and jealous rivals of each other. …they are exhorted to withdraw themselves completely from the profane world, in order to lead an exclusively religious life.” Émile Durkheim, “The Elementary Forms of Religious Life” “Hence comes the mystic asceticism whose object is to root out from man all the attachment for the profane world that remains in him.”
Émile Durkheim, “The Elementary Forms of Religious Life”
“One can explain suffering and injustice by referring to individual sin committed…As compensatory promises, one can refer to hopes of the individual for a better life in the future.
“One could wish to be saved from the eternal and senseless play of human passions and desires and hope for the quietude of the pure beholding of the divine. One could wish to be saved from radical evil and the servitude of sin and hope for the eternal and free benevolence in the lap of a fatherly god.”
Max Weber, “The Social Psychology of the World Religions”
Kant defines Enlightenment as emergence from "self-imposed immaturity." ("What Is Enlightenment?") What keeps humans immature?
How do humans free themselves?
"Aude sapere" - Dare to know! John Stuart Mill defines Utilitarianism as doing what will produce the most happiness for the most people. When combined with the “Protestant Work Ethic,” Ben Franklin’s utilitarianism is born. “Now, all Franklin’s moral attitudes are coloured with utilitarianism. Honesty is useful because it assures credit; so are punctuality, industry, frugality, and that is the reason they are virtues.”
Max Weber, “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism”
“Over… magnificence, which, resting on an unsound economic basis, prefers a sordid elegance to a sober simplicity, they set a clean and solid confort of the middle-class home as an ideal.”
Max Weber, “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism”
“I’d join the movement
If there was one I could believe in,
I’d take the bread and wine
If there was a church I could receive in.”
“Men are the producers of their conceptions, ideas, etc.—real, active men, as they are conditioned by a definite development of their productive forces and of the intercourse corresponding to these, up to its furthest forms.”
Karl Marx, “The German Ideology”
“The alienation of the worker in his product means not only that his labour becomes an object, as external existence, but that it exists outside him, independently, as something alien to him, and that it becomes a power of its own confronting him; it means that the life which he has conferred on the object confronts him as something hostile and alien.
Karl Marx, “Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844”