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Copy of Westward Expansion
Transcript of Copy of Westward Expansion
End of the Open Range
Cattle were multiplying and ranching became a big business but the open range ended
Blizzards (1887, 1888)
Eventually became the platform for the democratic party.
Turned into ranches and Private Property
What They Wanted:
Increase in Money Supply
Graduated Income Tax
Federal Loan Program
Election of U.S. Senators by Popular Vote
Single Term for President And Vice-President
Secret Ballot to End Fraud
Eight Hour Workday
Restrictions On Immigration
Cyclical Nature of Poverty
Won 10% of Presidential Vote
Attractive to Farmer's & desperate laborers
Cut wheat in one pass
Democratic Party adopts-Government is responsible for reforming social injustices
Slice through heavy soil
Attempted to pay back loans
Mortgaged their homes
Bought more land
Attempt put them further in debt
(1876) Oliver Kelly started a social club
Educated farmers about low interest rates and government control of the railroad banking
Election of 1896
William Jennings Bryan
Favored currency back ONLY by gold
Believed in Bimetalism currency
Both gold and silver
Number of Votes:
Number of Votes:
WINNER IS WILLIAM McKinley!
For the business man
For Farmers and Laborers
1812 - 1890s
Americans felt that it was their job to spread across the West
people of non-Europeans origin
Cowboys White Settlers
Over use of land
Originated from the Spanish
Believed Native Americans didn't own the land
Because they weren't settled on it
Began plan for assimilation
Native Americans become "white"
Why People went West
Starting a business
Settling on land
Movie Cowboys vs Real Cowboys
Guns were only to protect cattle
Saving damsels in distress
More likely to die from riding accident
than ambush or gunfight
Living in The Great Plains
Settlers often faced
Lived in soddies
Warm in Winter
Cool in summer
Not very water resistant, little light, and insects/small animals
Panic of 1873
Battles Between Whites and Indians
"Kill the Indian, Save the Man"
(cc) image by jantik on Flickr
Massacre at Sand Creek
Death on the Bozeman Trail
Red River War
Battle of Little Big Horn
Battle of Wounded Knee
Treaty of Fort Laramie
Country had grown too fast
Stock market collapsed
Banks stopped giving loans
Gold Reserves Dwindled
1 million people lost their jobs
Railroads were going bankrupt
Farmers had too much debt
Consumer wages and purchases fell
NEED A CHANGE!
Moved cattle from West
Roundup all of the cattle on the open range and corral them
Overland transport of the animals lasted 3 months
After Civil War
Demand for beef
Ranchers took cattle to railheads
Main shipping areas for the railroads
Eastward to Chicago
Location of growing population
To fight railroads for overcharging
The Cheyenne tribe returned to land at Sand Creek thinking they were protected by the government
Chivington's troops came to Sand Creek
They killed over 150 women and children
Bozeman Trail ran directly through Sioux hunting grounds
To try to stop white settlement Crazyhorse ambushed an Army captain and killed 80 soldiers
Fights continued until the government agreed to close the trail
The Kiowa and Comanche had been raiding local communities for six years
Army's orders were to destroy villages, and horses, bring back only women and children
Army crushed much resistance of the Native Americans
"Custer's Last Stand"
Sioux and Cheyenne tribes head a ritual, during which Sitting Bull saw a vision of soldiers and Native Americans falling from horses
Colonel Custer arrived at Big Horn River
Led by Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull, and their warriors
Crushed Custer and his men
Military leaders ordered the arrest of Sitting Bull to end The Ghost Dance movement and was shot and killed
Army rounded up 350 starving and freezing Sioux and took them to Wounded Knee in South Dakota
Fire broke out and cannons were fired by Army
300 unarmed Sioux were killed
Last major battle of the Plain Indians
50 minute video
"The Real West ten most wanted"
The Magnificent Seven Cowboy clips
John Wayne Westerns - The Cowboys, Fort Apache, Rio Bravo, The Searchers - John Waynes Movies
Transcontinental Railroad (1of5)
Part 2 (10 min)
Part 3 (10 Min)
Part 4 (10 min)
Part 5 (10 min)
Westward Expansion: Crash Course US History #24
Man made Waterway Connecting Rivers
Transporting goods Faster
Erie Canal facts
The canal is 363 miles long, 14 feet deep, and 40 feet wide
It contains 18 aqueducts and 72 locks.
The men who constructed the canal used their bare hands, picks, and shovels.
The men were paid only fifty cents each day!
The Erie Canal caused a canal boom in New York in the 1820's
Allowing more people to move west
Ways to get West
Transcontinental Rail Road
2000 miles of R/R
1863 to 1869
Lincolns plan to move quicker to the west
Building began in Sacramento California
4 Shop Keepers began the project
They had to build the 1st 40 miles before Government would help pay for it
All the supplies and train engines were brought by ship (4 month trip on rough seas)
The R/R had to go over the roughest terrain (the Sierra Nevada Mts)
Estimated 50 bridges and 13 to 14 Tunnels just to reach the peak
The Gold Rush cause many men to leave the R/R
In 1834, a group of missionaries traveled west to the Oregon territory 1st then others followed
The Oregon Trail began in St. Louis, Missouri and crossed over two thousand miles of plains and mountains, finally ending in the Willamette Valley in Oregon.
The journey took four to six months
Oregon trail part 1
Main job was Herding Cattle
The Gold Rush
1848 to 1855 - Gold Rush
Mr. Sutter started a Agricultural enterprise in California
Sutter and Marshall start a Saw Mill business and find gold
They try to keep it a secret
Mr Bannon buys up all the supplies in California and then announces the gold rush.
He becomes rich by selling supplies at high prices
1849- Miners named the 49ers.
Many people were scammed and many were killed for searching for gold
*** There wasn't as much gold as people thought
Not Included in Manifest Destiny
Gold In North Carolina
In 1799, Conrad Reed, the son of farmer found a 17-pound yellow "rock" in Little Meadow Creek on the family farm in North Carolina.
For three years, the rock served as a bulky doorstop. In 1802, a jeweler from Fayetteville identified the rock as a large gold nugget.
He told John Reed to name his price. Reed, not understanding the true value of gold, asked for what he thought was the hefty price of $3.50, or a week's worth of wages.
The large nugget's true value was around $3,600.
About 1803, John Reed organized a small gold mining operation. Soon afterward a slave named Peter found a 28-pound nugget. John Reed died rich in 1845 from the gold found on his property.
Discovered in 1872 In Australia and is called the Holtermann Nugget. It was 630lbs in weight.
The world's largest nugget was found just a couple of inches below the ground near Dunolly, Victoria, Australia on 5 February 1869. Weighing in at 2,315.5 troy ounces (72.02 kg or 144.7 lbs) it surpassed the "Welcome Nugget" by nearly a hundred ounces. In this 1869 illustration published shortly after the discovery, the size of the nugget (61 by 31 cm or 24 by 12 in.) is compared to a 12 inch (30 cm) scale bar. The nugget was soon melted down into ingots and shipped to the Bank of England. Before 1990, just about all large nuggets were melted down for their monetary value. Today there are less than a dozen known nuggets over 500 ounces or 31 lbs)
Welcome Stranger Nugget
Gold Rush Alaska Season 5
Today's Gold Machines
Treaty of Fort Laramie 1868
Treaty created to end the fighting
All Indians between ages 6 and 16 would attend school
Native Americans would adhere to a religion (mainly christians)
Native Americans would become farmers
In exchange for becoming farmers they would be given large parcels of Land for farming
Problems with this:
To give up ones belief, traditions and ways of live and to take on the social and physical characteristics of the group. (the white man)
Loss of there culture and traditions.
Treaty ends in 1874-
Due to Gold found in the Black Hills
little bighorn Part One 12 min.
Little Bighorn part 2 12 min
Belief that the expansion of the US throughout the American continents was both justified and inevitable.
The Oregon Trail was a major route
that people took when migrating
to the western part of the United States. Between 1841 and 1869
, hundreds of thousands of people traveled westward on the trail.
Many of them traveled in large wagon trains using covered wagons to carry their belongings.
The Oregon Trail began in Independence, Missouri and ended in Oregon City, Oregon.
It stretched for around
2,000 miles and through six different states
including Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho, and Oregon. Along the way,
travelers had to cross all sorts of rough terrain such as the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
The pioneers were able to bring very little with them.
When they left their homes in the east, they had to leave most of their belongings. T
he covered wagon was mostly filled with food.
It took over a
1,000 pounds of food to feed a family of four on the trip out west
. They took preserved
foods such as hard tack, coffee, bacon, rice, beans, and flour.
They also took a few basic cooking utensils such as a
coffee pot, some buckets, and an iron skillet.
In 1849, a guide was published describing the overland journey to California.
There were reports of the
trail being littered with
items that people cast off along the way. These includ
books, stoves, trunks and other heavy items.
It took about five months for a wagon train to make the journey.
first major migration took place in 1843
when a single
large wagon train of 120 wagons and 500 people made the trip.
The trail was popular until the transcontinental railroad connected the east to the west in 1869.
In 1978, the U.S. Congress officially named the trail the Oregon National Historic Trail.
Although much of the trail has been built over through the years, around 300 miles of it has been preserved and you can still see the ruts made from the wagon wheels.
What the Oregon Trail was.
The main vehicle used to carry the pioneer's belongings was the covered wagon.
Sometimes these wagons were
called "Prairie Schooners", because they were like boats going over the vast prairies
of the west. The wagons were made of wood with iron around the wheels like tires. The covers were made from waterproofed cotton or linen canvas.
The typical covered wagon was about 10 feet long and four feet wide.
Most of the settlers used oxen to pull their wagons.
The oxen were slow, but steady.
were used as well.
A fully loaded wagon could weigh as much as 2,500 pounds.
A lot of the time
the pioneers walked alongside the wagons.
Traveling wasn't too bad with the wagons on the flat terrain of the prairies, but once the settlers reached the Rocky Mountains,
getting the wagons up and down steep trails was very difficult.
Traveling the Oregon Trail in the 1800s was a dangerous journey. However,
the danger wasn't from Native Americans
as you might think. As a matter of fact, many records show that Native Americans helped many of the travelers along the way.
The real danger was from a disease called cholera
that killed many settlers.
Other dangers included bad weather and accidents while trying to move their heavy wagons over the mountains.
Dangers on the Trail
The pioneers didn't have room for a lot of fancy items.
They only had room to pack two or three sets of tough clothing.
candles for lighting and a rifle to hunt
with along the way.
Other items included tents, bedding, and basic tools such as an axe and a shovel.
The Oregon Trail is this nation's longest graveyard.
Over a 25 year span, up to 65,000 deaths
occurred along the western overland emigrant trails. If evenly spaced along the length of the Oregon Trail,
there would be a grave every 50 yards from Missouri to Oregon City.
Oregon Trail "The Donner Party" 10 minutes
Donner Party documentary 1 hour long
full documentary Donner Party Hour long
1 hour video gold rush gold towns
Law and Order during the Gold Rush
Justice was often at the hands of angry mobs
There were no laws.
California was not even a state, yet.
Anyone who found gold was quickly surrounded by other prospectors
Claim laws had to be set. In some camps, a claim was on 10 square feet, and each person was allowed one claim.
Taking someone else's claim, or "claim jumping," was common.
Swindlers would also "salt" the ground, scattering a little gold around and then sell the land for lots of money
Violence and crime were on the rise. Law and order was in the hands of the people.
Punishment for crimes was often fast and simple. Small crimes were punished by flogging with a whip. For more serious crimes, such as robbery and murder, the punishment was hanging.
Lynchings were common, when mobs or vigilantes would get out of control and hang someone without a trial.
By the early 1850s, the gold rush had attracted a less desirable crowd. Crooks, bandits, claim jumpers, professional gamblers and others came to take advantage of the wealth.
Why the Open Range Ended
Living on the plains